Chapter 1: The Human Organism

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ANATOMY

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125 Terms

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ANATOMY

‑ investigates the structure of the body ‑ to dissect, or cut apart and separate, the parts of the body for study

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Two approaches in studying Anatomy

Systemic anatomy Regional anatomy

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Systemic anatomy

study of the body by systems

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Regional Anatomy

study of the body by areas

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Two ways to examine structures

Surface anatomy

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Surface anatomy

study of external features

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Anatomical imaging

involves the use of technologies such as x-ray, ultrasound, MRI

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PHYSIOLOGY

deals with the process or functions of living things

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SIX LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION OF THE BODY

Chemical Level Cell Level Tissue Level Organ Level Organ System Level Organism Level

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Chemical Level

involves how atoms interact and combine into molecules

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Cell Level

molecules combine to form organelles

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Cells

basic structure and functional units of organisms

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Organelles

small structures that make up some cells

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Tissue Level

group of similar cells and surrounding materials

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Four types of tissue

epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous

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Organ level

composed of two or more tissue types that together perform one or more common functions

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Organ System Level

group of organs classified as unit because of a common function or set of functions

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Organism Level

organ systems make up an organism

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organism

any living thing considered as a whole, whether composed of one cell, such as bacterium, or of trillions of cells, such as human

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Integumentary System

provides protection, regulates temperature, prevents water loss, helps produce vitamin D

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Parts of Integumentary System

skin, hair, nails, sebaceous glands and sweat glands

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Skeletal System

provides protection and support, allows body movements, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and adipose tissue

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Parts of Skeletal System

bones, associated cartilages, ligaments, joints

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Muscular System

produces body movements, maintains posture, and produces body heat

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Parts of Muscular System

muscles attached to the skeleton by tendons

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Nervous System

major regulatory system that detects sensations and controls movements, physiological processes, and intellectual functions

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Parts of Nervous System

brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors

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Endocrine System

major regulatory system that influences metabolism, growth, reproduction, and many other functions

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Parts of Endocrine System

endocrine glands that secrete hormones

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Cardiovascular System

transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout the body; plays a role in the immune response and the regulation of body temperature

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Parts of Cardiovascular System

heart, blood vessels, and blood

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Lymphatic System

removes foreign substances from the blood and lymph, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, and absorbs dietary fats from the digestive tract

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Parts of Lymphatic System

Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, other lymphatic organs

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Respiratory System

exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and air and regulates blood pH

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Parts of Respiratory System

lungs and respiratory passages

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Digestive System

performs the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastes

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Parts of Digestive System

mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, accessory organs

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Urinary System

removes waste products from the blood and regulates blood pH, ion balance, and water balance

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Parts of Urinary System

kidneys, urinary bladder, and ureters

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Female Reproductive System

produces oocytes and is the site of fertilization and fetal development; produces milk for the newborn; produces hormones that influence sexual function and behaviors

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Parts of Female Reproductive System

ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, and associated structures

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Male Reproductive System

produces and transfers sperm cells to the female and produces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviors

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Parts of Male Reproductive System

testes, accessory structures, ducts, and penis

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SIX CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE

Organization Metabolism Responsiveness Growth Development Reproduction

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Organization

specific relationship of the many individual parts of an organism

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Metabolism

ability to use energy to perform vital functions, such as growth. Movement, and reproduction

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Responsiveness

ability of an organism to sense changes in the environment and make the adjustments that help maintain its life

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Growth

increase in size of all or part of the organism; it can result from an increase in cell number, cell size, or the amount of substance surrounding cells

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Development

changes an organism undergoes through time

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differentiation

change in cell structure and function from generalized to specialized

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morphogenesis

the change in shape of tissues, organs, and the entire organism

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Reproduction

formation of new cells or new organisms

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HOMEOSTASIS

maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body

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homeo

the same

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stasis

to stop

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Homeostasis mechanisms

maintain body temperature near set point (e.g., sweating or shivering)

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variables

range of conditions that affect cell's fluid

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set point

average normal value

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Negative Feedback

  • to decrease

  • any deviation from the set point is made smaller or is resisted

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Three components of negative-feedback mechanisms

Receptor Control center Effector

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Receptor

monitors the value of a variable by detecting stimuli

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Control center

determines the set point for the variable and receives input from the receptor about the variable

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Effector

change the value of the variable when directed by the control center

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Positive Feedback

‑ to increase ‑ occur when the initial stimulus further stimulates the response ‑ at times, this type of response is required to re-achieve homeostasis

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Body Positions

Anatomical Position Supine Prone

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Anatomical Position

a person standing upright with the face directed forward, upper limbs hanging to the sides, and palms facing forward

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Supine

lying facing upward

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Prone

lying facing downward

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Body Parts and Regions

Central region Upper Limb Lower Limb

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Central region

• Head • Neck • Trunk o Thorax (chest) o Abdomen (belly) o Pelvis (hips)

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Upper Limb

• Arm -shoulder to elbow • Forearm -elbow to wrist • Wrist • Hand

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Lower Limb

• Thigh -hip to knee • Leg -knee to ankle • Ankle • Foot

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Four Quadrants

Right upper quadrants Left upper quadrants Right lower quadrants Left lower quadrants

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Right Upper Quadrant

Liver, stomach, gallbladder, duodenum, right kidney, pancreas, transverse colon, right adrenal gland, small intestine

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Left Upper Quadrant

Liver, left adrenal gland, stomach, left kidney, pancreas, spleen, transverse colon, small intestine

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Right Lower Quadrant

Small intestine, large intestine, cecum, appendix, right ureter, right reproductive organs (ovary, fallopian tube, spermatic cord)

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Left Lower Quadrant

Small intestine, large intestine, left ureter, left reproductive organs (ovary, fallopian tube, spermatic cord, sigmoid colon)

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Nine Regions

Right hypochondriac Epigastric Left hypochondriac Right lumbar Umbilical Left lumbar Right iliac Hypogastric

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Right hypochondriac

Liver, right kidney, small and large intestines

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Epigastric

Liver, stomach, duodenum, spleen, adrenal glands, pancreas

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Left hypochondriac

Liver's tip, stomach, pancreas, left kidney, spleen, small and large intestines

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Right lumbar

Ascending colon, small intestine, and right kidney

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Umbilical

Duodenum, small intestine, and transverse colon

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Left lumbar

Descending colon, small intestine, left kidney

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Right iliac

Appendix, cecum, ascending colon, and small intestine

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Hypogastric

Bladder, sigmoid colon, small intestine, reproductive organs

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Planes

Sagittal plane Median plane or midsagittal Transverse or horizontal plane Frontal or coronal plane

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Sagittal plane

runs vertically through the body; separates right and left parts

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Median plane or midsagittal

sagittal plane that passes through the midline; equal right and left

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Transverse or horizontal plane

parallel to the surface of the ground; dividing superior and inferior

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Frontal or coronal plane

vertically from right to left; dividing anterior and posterior

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Longitudinal section

cut along the length of the organ

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Transverse section

cross section; cuts completely through an organ

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Oblique section

cut is made diagonally across the long axis

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Body Cavities

Thoracic cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity Abdominopelvic cavity

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Thoracic cavity

surrounded by the rib cage; superior to muscular diaphragm

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Mediastinum

divides thoracic into left and right; houses the heart, thymus, trachea, and esophagus

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Abdominal cavity

contains stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys; posterior to muscular diaphragm; bounded by abdominal muscles

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Pelvic cavity

enclosed by pelvic bones; urinary bladder, part of large intestines, internal reproductive organs

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Abdominopelvic cavity

abdominal and pelvic cavities

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