Bio Unit 2 Test

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Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous, Sulfur

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Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous, Sulfur

What's CHNOPS stand for?

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organic molecules

carbon-based molecules

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inorganic molecule

not carbon-based molecule

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4

How many bonds can carbon form up to?

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macromolecule

any very large complex molecule; found only in plants and animals

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monomer

building blocks for macromolecules/polymers

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-mono

one

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-mer

sub-unit

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polymer

big molecules made up of monomers

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carbohydrates (sugar), lipids (fats), proteins, and nucleic acids

What do polymers make?

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-poly

many

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dehydration synthesis

chemical reactions that bond monomers together to make polymers

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remove water molecules to make something (combine monomers into polymers)

What's one of the main thing you do in dehydration synthesis?

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dimer

a compound whose molecules are composed of two identical monomers

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-di

two

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Hydrolysis

a chemical reaction to breaking down polymers into monomers

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carbohydrates

main source of energy for cells activity (quick energy)

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CHO

What elements do carbohydrates use?

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for structural purposes; to make the cell wall with cellouse

Why do plants use carbs?

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monosaccharide

monomer for carbohydrates

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-saccharide

sugar

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Glucose

monosaccharide; sugar found in blood (main energy source)

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Fructose

monosaccharide; sugar found in fruit

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disaccharide

dimer for carbohydrates

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Sucrose

disaccharide; can be found in plants

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polysaccharide

polymer for carbohydrates

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glycogen

how animals store excess sugar; when glucose levels are then ______ is used

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starch

how plants store extra sugar

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isomer

same molecular form but the different structure (STRUCTURE = FUNCTION)

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protein

NCHO is present, made up of amino acids

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amino acid

protein's monomers

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regulate cell processes (enzymes), form cell structure, transport substances into or out of cells, fights diseases

What is the proteins' function? (name 4)

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N-C-C-N-C-C

What formation does protein run?

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dipeptide

protein's dimer

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polypeptide

protein's polymer

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nucleic acid

macromolecules composed of nucleotide chain

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nucleotide

nucleic acid's monomer

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deoxyribose

DNA

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Ribose

RNA

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Purines

two carbon-nitrogen ring; have Adenine (A) and Guanine (G)

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Pyrimidines

one carbon-nitrogen ring, have Cytosine (C), Uracil (U), Thymine (T)

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two

How many strands does DNA have?

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one

How many strands does RNA have?

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A, G, C, T; A bonds with T and G bonds with C

What bases are in DNA? Which bases attract each other?

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A, G, U, C; A bonds with U and G bonds with C

What bases are in RNA? Which bases attract each other?

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they can because of its structural properties; which allow purines to hydrogen bond with pyrimidines

Why do purines pair with pyrimidines?

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hydrogen bonds are weak which makes DNA easier to break apart and copy itslef

Why does DNA form with hydrogen bonds?

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nucleic acid

polymer for nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)

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RNA

to store and transmit genetic info

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lipids

fats we use

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nonpolar because it has less oxygen than carbons

Are lipids polar or nonpolar?

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glycerol and fatty acids

monomer for lipid (name 2)

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CHO(P)

What elements do lipids have?

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long-term energy source and storage (cell membrane) and steroids which helps structure in the cells; communication between cells (immune system)

What's the structure of a lipid?

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lipid

polymer of a lipid

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saturated fats

no double bonds between carbons, they have saturated hydrogens, get as much as they can hold, straight, the bad fats are its structure, solid at room temp

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unsaturated fats

double bond between carbon, less Hydrogens, causes it to bend, liquid at room temp

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saturated fats

<p>What structure is this?</p>

What structure is this?

<p>What structure is this?</p>
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unsaturated fat

<p>What structure is this?</p>

What structure is this?

<p>What structure is this?</p>
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protein

<p>What structure is this?</p>

What structure is this?

<p>What structure is this?</p>
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it makes the protein function

Why is protein structure so important?

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carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another

What are the peptide bonds in the primary structure?

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primary structure

held by peptide bonds; the linear sequence of amino acids that make up protein

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the order of the amino acids

What determines how a protien is gonna fold in the primary stucture?

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amino group, carboxyl group, side chain, and central Carbon

What are the main componets of the amino acid structure?

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secondary structure

the folding begins; hydrogen bonds between the amino acid and carboxyl group of amino acids that are not next to each other.

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alpha helix and/or the beat-pleated sheet and Yes they can

What two foldings are found in the secondary structure? Can they both be present at the same time?

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tertiary structure

more folding occurs and the protein gets its 3D structure

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ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bond

What bonds are present in a tertiary structure?

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disulfide bond

one sulfur in amino acid and one in the other

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on the outside of the folding to be with the water

Where would you find the hydrophilic R group in a protein?

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in the center of protein folding; folded inside to protect from water

Where would you find a hydrophobic R group in a protein?

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quaternary

all multiple polypeptide chains and/or tertiary chains come together

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tertitary structure

What structure can be found in all proteins?

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quaternary structure

What structure can not be found in all proteins?

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temperature, pH

every protein has a specfic _______ and __ for which it functions

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they will break and change shape

What happens when proteins go outside of their temperature or pH?

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denature

to lose shape and it's function

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