Studied by 554 people

5.0(7)

get a hint

hint

Created in 2023 for M. Sumler's UMKC dual credit Elementary Statistics course.

1

Bar Graph

a graph made of bars whose heights represent the frequencies of respective categories (chapter 2)

New cards

2

Bernoulli Trial

one repetition of a binomial experiment (chapter 5)

New cards

3

Binomial Experiment

an experiment that contains *n* identical trials such that each of these *n* trials has only two possible outcomes; the probabilities of these two outcomes remain constant for each trial, and the trials are independent (chapter 5)

New cards

4

Binomial Probability Distribution

the probability distribution that gives the probability of *x* successes in *n* trials when the probability of success is *p* for each trial of a binomial experiment (chapter 5)

New cards

5

Box-And-Whisker Plot

a plot that shows the center, spread, and skewness of a data set with a box and two whiskers using the median, the first quartile, the third quartile, and the smallest and the largest values in the data set between the lower and the upper inner fences (chapter 3)

New cards

6

Census

a survey conducted by including every element of the population (chapter 1)

New cards

7

Central Limit Theorem

the theorem from which it is inferred that for a large sample size (*n* ≥ 30), the shape of the sampling distribution of *x̄* is approximately normal; also states that the shape of the sampling distribution of *p̂* is approximately normal for a sample if *np* > 5 and *nq* > 5 (chapter 7)

New cards

8

Chebyshev’s Theorem

for any number *k* greater than 1, at least (1 - 1/*k*^2) of the values for any distribution lie within *k* standard deviations of the mean (chapter 3)

New cards

9

Classical Probability Rule

the method of assigning probability to outcomes or events of an experiment with equally likely outcomes (chapter 4)

New cards

10

Combinations

the number of ways *x* elements can be selected from *n* elements; order of selection is **not** important (chapter 4)

New cards

11

Complementary Events

two events that taken together include all the outcomes for an experiment but do not contain any common outcome

EX: true and false, yes and no (chapter 4)

New cards

12

Compound Event

an event that contains more than one outcome of an experiment (chapter 4)

New cards

13

Conditional Probability

the probability of an event subject to the condition that another event has already occurred (chapter 4)

New cards

14

Continuous Variable

a quantitative variable that can assume any numerical value over a certain interval or intervals (chapter 1)

New cards

15

Cumulative Frequency

the frequency of a class that includes all values in a data set that fall below the upper boundary or limit of that class (chapter 2)

New cards

16

Cumulative Frequency Distribution

a table that lists the total number of values that fall below the upper boundary or limit of each class (chapter 2)

New cards

17

Cumulative Relative Frequency

the cumulative frequency of a class divided by the total number of observations (chapter 2)

New cards

18

Dependent Events

two events for which the occurrence of one **does** change the probability of the occurrence of the other (chapter 4)

New cards

19

Descriptive Statistics

collection of methods for organizing, displaying, and describing, data using tables, graphs, and summary measures (chapter 1)

New cards

20

Discrete Variable

a quantitative variable whose values are countable (chapter 1)

New cards

21

Empirical Rule

for a specific bell-shaped distribution, about 68% of the observations fall in the interval (μ - σ) to (μ + σ), about 95% fall in the interval (μ - 2σ) to (μ + 2σ), and about 99.7% fall in the interval (μ - 3σ) to (μ + 3σ) (chapter 3)

New cards

22

Equally Likely Outcomes

two (or more) outcomes or events that have the same probability of occurrence (chapter 4)

New cards

23

Factorial

denoted by the symbol !; the product of all the integers from a given number to 1

EX: *n*! = the product of all integers from *n* to 1 (chapter 4)

New cards

24

Frequency Distribution

a table that lists all the categories or classes and the number of values that belong to each of these categories or classes (chapter 2)

New cards

25

Histogram

a graph in which classes are marked on the horizontal axis and frequencies, relative frequencies, or percentages are marked on the vertical axis represented by the heights of bars that are drawn adjacent to each other (chapter 2)

New cards

26

Hypergeometric Probability Distribution

the probability distribution that is applied to determine the probability of *x* successes in *n* trials when the trials are not independent (chapter 5)

New cards

27

Independent Events

two events for which the occurrence of one **does not** change the probability of the occurrence of the other (chapter 4)

New cards

28

Inferential Statistics

collection of methods that help make decisions about a population **based on sample results** (chapter 1)

New cards

29

Interquartile Range (IQR)

the difference between the third and the first quartiles (chapter 3)

New cards

30

Intersection of Events

given by the outcomes that are common to two (or more) events (chapter 4)

New cards

31

Joint Probability

the probability that two (or more) events occur together (chapter 4)

New cards

32

Law of Large Numbers

theory which states that if an experiment is repeated again and again, the probability of an event obtained from the relative frequency approaches the actual/theoretical probability (chapter 4)

New cards

33

Margin of Error

the quantity that is subtracted from and added to the value of a sample statistic to obtain a confidence interval for the corresponding population parameter (chapter 8)

New cards

34

Marginal Probability

the probability of one event or characteristic without consideration of any other event (chapter 4)

New cards

35

Mean

a measure of center calculated by dividing the sum of all values by the number of values in the data set; denoted by μ (chapter 3)

New cards

36

Mean of p̂

the mean of the sampling distribution of *p̂,* denoted by *μp̂* is equal to the population proportion *p* (chapter 7)

New cards

37

Mean of x̄

the mean of the sampling distribution of *x̄,* denoted by *μx̄,* is equal to the population mean *μ* (chapter 7)

New cards

38

Measures of Center

measures that describe the center of a distribution

EX: mean, median, and mode (chapter 3)

New cards

39

Measures of Dispersion

measures that give the spread of a distribution

EX: range, variance, and standard deviation (chapter 3)

New cards

40

Measures of Position

measures that determine the position of a single value in relation to other values in a data set

EX: quartiles, percentiles, and percentile rank (chapter 3)

New cards

41

Median

the value that divides a ranked data set into two equal parts (chapter 3)

New cards

42

Mode

the value (or values) that occurs with highest frequency in a data set (chapter 3)

New cards

43

Mutually Exclusive Events

two or more events that do not contain any common outcome and, hence, cannot occur together (chapter 4)

New cards

44

Normal Probability Distribution

the probability distribution of a continuous random variable that, when plotted, gives a specific bell-shaped curve; the parameters of the normal distribution are the mean *μ* and the standard deviation *σ* (chapter 6)

New cards

45

Outliers

values that are very small or very large relative to the majority of the values in a data set (chapter 2)

New cards

46

Pareto Chart

a bar graph in which bars are arranged in decreasing order of heights (chapter 2)

New cards

47

Percentile Rank

gives the percentage of values in the data set that are smaller than this value (chapter 3)

New cards

48

Permutations

number of arrangements of *x* items selected from *n* items; order of selections **is** important (chapter 4)

New cards

49

Poisson Probability Distribution

the probability distribution that gives the probability of *x* occurrences in an interval when the average number of occurrences in that interval is λ (chapter 5)

New cards

50

Population

the collection of all elements whose characteristics are being studied (chapter 1)

New cards

51

Probability

a numerical measure of the likelihood that a specific event will occur (chapter 4)

New cards

52

Qualitative Data

data generated by a qualitative variable – a variable that cannot assume numerical values but is classified into two or more categories (chapter 1)

New cards

53

Quantitative Data

data generated by a quantitative variable – a variable that can be measured numerically (chapter 1)

New cards

54

Quartiles

three summary measures that divide a ranked data set into four equal parts (chapter 3)

New cards

55

Random Sample

a sample drawn in such a way that each element of the population has some chance of being included in the sample (chapter 1)

New cards

56

Range

a measure of spread obtained by taking the difference between the largest and the smallest values in a data set (chapter 3)

New cards

57

Representative Sample

a sample that contains the characteristics of the populations as closely as possible (chapter 1)

New cards

58

Skewed-to-the-Left Histogram

a histogram with a longer tail on the left side (chapter 2)

New cards

59

Skewed-to-the-Right Histogram

a histogram with a longer tail on the right side (chapter 2)

New cards

60

Standard Deviation

a measure of spread that is given by the positive square root of the variance; denoted by *σ* (chapter 3)

New cards

61

Standard Deviation of p̂

the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of *p̂,* denoted by *σp̂*, is equal to (*√pq/n)* when *n/N* ≤ .05 (chapter 7)

New cards

62

Standard Deviation of x̄

the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of *x̄,* denoted by *σx̄,* is equal to *σ/(√n)* when *n/N* ≤ .05 (chapter 7)

New cards

63

Standard Normal Distribution

the normal distribution with *μ* = 0 and *σ* = 1; the units are denoted by *z* (chapter 6)

New cards

64

Stem-and-Leaf Display

a display of data in which each value is divided into two potions– a stem and a leaf (chapter 2)

New cards

65

Symmetric Histogram

a histogram that is identical on both sides of its central point (chapter 2)

New cards

66

Tree Diagram

a diagram in which each outcome of an experiment is represented by a branch of a tree (chapter 4)

New cards

67

Trimmed Mean

the *k*% trimmed mean is obtained by dropping *k*% of the smallest values and *k*% of the largest values from the given data and then calculating the mean of the remaining (100 - 2*k*)% of the values (chapter 3)

New cards

68

Union of Two Events

given by the outcomes that belong either to one or to both events (chapter 4)

New cards

69

Variance

a measure of spread; related to standard deviation (chapter 3)

New cards

70

Weighted Mean

mean of a data set whose values are assigned different weights before the mean is calculated (chapter 3)

New cards