Music Lit Exam #1

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56 Terms

1

Stone Age

Prehistory

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Bronze Age

3300-1200

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3

Iron Age

12-800

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4

Classical Antiquity

800 BCE- 500 CE

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5

Middle Ages

500 CE- 1450 CE

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6

Plato's Republic

4th Century, music can heal

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7

After the fall of Roman Empire in the 9th C. Who followed?

Byzantine Empire- most direct Arab World- strongest, most vibrant Western Europe - weakest, poorest

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8

What lead Europe to become fragmented once again?

The death of Louis the Pious

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9

Epitaph of Seikolos

The first written music

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10

Mass for Christmas Day

Main Eucharistic liturgical service. Biblical, syllabic

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11

Apollo

Lyre (string instrument) was his instrument, head

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12

dionysus

Aulos (woodwind instrument) was his instrument, heart

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13

aristotle

Aristotle's politic 300 BCE. Music that imitated ethos aroused some ethos in listeners.

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14

boethius

~480 - ~524, most revered music authority in the middle ages. De institude musica (fundamentals of music)

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15

Hildegard "In prinicipia omne"

Listen for women singing

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16

Medieval Songs Outside Church

12th-13th C, epic or lyric

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17

Church Modes

8 modes Odd numbers - authentic, above final Even numbers- plagal, below final

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18

Diorian

Starts on D(final), 1, Reciting tone A

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19

Hypodorian

D is the 4th, 2, Reciting tone F

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20

Phrygian

Starts on E (final),3 , Reciting tone C

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21

Hypophrygian

E is 4th, 4, Reciting tone A

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22

Lydian

Starts on F, 5, Reciting tone C

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23

Hypolydian

F is 4th, 6, Reciting tone A

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24

Mixolydian

Starts on G, 7, Reciting tone D

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25

Hypomixolydian

G is the 4th, 8, Reciting tone C

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26

Guido d'Arezzo

Guidonian Hand , 21 notes

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27

Hildegard of Bingen

12th C. composer and visionary, famous for prophecies

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28

Martianus Capella

"marriage of memory and philology", early 5th C, 7 liberal arts

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29

trivium

an introductory curriculum at a medieval university involving grammar and logic and rhetoric

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30

quadrivium

a higher division of the curriculum in a medieval university involving arithmetic and music and geometry and astronomy

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31

pythagoras

Music governed by math law's, numerical relationships. Music could pernitrate the soul (harmonia), inner harmony

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32

Charlemagne

crowned emperor by Pope Leo III 800 CE, important role in preserving manuscripts for music

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33

Troubadours

12 C. French poet composers. Southern France. Females are called trobouritz

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34

Trouveres

Northern French poet composers, 12th c. Spoke french

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35

Final

Ending note

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36

Gregorian Chant

9th and 10th C, monophonic, scared Latin, Roman Catholic Church

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37

Liturgy

  1. Intro prayers 2, Liturgy of the Word

  2. Liturgy of the Eucharist

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38

Mass

Most important service in Catholic Church, central act is symbolic reenactment of the Last Supper

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39

Ordinary of the Mass

Parts: Kyrie "lord have mercy, christ have mercy, lord have mercy" Gloria "Glory to god in the highest" Credo "I believe in God, the father almighty, matter of heaven & earth" Sanctus "holy holy holy lord" Agnus Dei "lamb of God...have mercy on us" Ite, missa est "mass has ended, Go in peace"

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40

Notation of Chant

Late 8th and 9th c. Standardized performance, promote uniform liturgy, increase influence, legend of st. Gregory

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41

Antiphonal

Alternating choirs

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42

Responsorial

choir responds to soloist

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43

Direct

Sung by one choir

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44

Syllabic

one note per syllable

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45

Melismatic

many notes per syllable

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46

Neumatic

2-7 notes per syllable

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47

Tetrachord

4 notes spanning a Perfect 4th

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48

Reciting tone

repeating musical note

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49

vespers

the sixth of the seven canonical hours of the divine office; early evening; now often made a public service on Sundays

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50

trope

Expanded existing chant New words+ music Melody only: extending or adding melismas Text only: called prosula

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51

The Divine Office

8 services, several psalms with antiphons, all 150 psalms sang each week, chant sung before and after psalms. Liturgy defined in rule of St. Benedict ~530

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52

canso

Sung by the troubadours, 13th C.

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53

Solesmes Chant Notation

Various manuscripts and printed editions of Gregorian chant, using varying styles of square-note neumes, circulated throughout the Catholic Church for centuries

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54

solmization

a system of naming the notes of a musical scale by syllables instead of letters

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55

Goliord Songs

Latin, earliest manifestation of liturgy, sung by Golidards

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56

goliard

a wandering scholar in medieval Europe; famed for intemperance and riotous behavior and the composition of satirical and ribald Latin songs

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