Enzymes

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what is breaking down, the substance the enzyme acts upon

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what is breaking down, the substance the enzyme acts upon

Substrate

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they only work with particular substrates, they are not interchangeable

Substrate specific

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the location where substrates and enzymes attach

Active site

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help to speed up reactions, example of an enzyme

catalyst

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the amount of energy needed to trigger the formation of new bonds

activation energy

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<p>the substrate is able to interact with the enzyme due to its polarity and shape</p>
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<p>the substrate is able to interact with the enzyme due to its polarity and shape</p>

the substrate is able to interact with the enzyme due to its polarity and shape

Induced fit model

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enzyme substrate complex, when the substrate binds at the site

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the shape can change

if there is a mutation

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<p>change in temperature, or change in ph, they can be repaired as long as their primary structure stays intact, they can slow down the body</p>
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<p>change in temperature, or change in ph, they can be repaired as long as their primary structure stays intact, they can slow down the body</p>

change in temperature, or change in ph, they can be repaired as long as their primary structure stays intact, they can slow down the body

how can you change an enzyme

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change in the shape (specifically the active site), when the active site changes shape the specific substrate doesn't fit

denaturation

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2 active sites, Activator→ binds and induces an ACTIVE form, Inhibitor → binds and induces an INACTIVE form

allosteric enzymes

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the end products of a reaction act as inhibitors (aka a negative feedback loop)

feedback inhibition

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a molecule mimics the substrate and occupies the active site, the reaction cannot proceed

competitive inhibition

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a molecule binds somewhere that is NOT the active site, a change in shape still occurs and the reaction does not happen

noncompetitive inhibitor

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an enzyme allows more substrates to bind after the first one has bound, the enzyme must have 2+ subunits for this to occur

Cooperativity

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when the substrate binds at the active site

enzyme substrate complex

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how acidic something is

pH

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1-14

pH scale

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high concentration of hydrogen (H+) ions

acids have a

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high concentration of hydroxide (OH-) ions

bases have a

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the process of forming ions, separating the ions from each other, charging the ions, splitting up the ionic bond

ionization

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neutral (7)

water is

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acids

acidity =

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bases

alkalinity/alkaline =

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because when you look at the chemical formula there is a high concentration of H+ ions

why would something be an acid

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because the chemical formula there is a high concentration of OH- ions

why would something be a base

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-ase

enzymes end in

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