Lecture 09

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Axial Skeleton

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Axial Skeleton

<p>-forms the long axis of the body</p><p>-includes: skull, vertebral column, rib cage</p><p>-bones involved with protecting, supporting, and carrying other body parts</p>

-forms the long axis of the body

-includes: skull, vertebral column, rib cage

-bones involved with protecting, supporting, and carrying other body parts

<p>-forms the long axis of the body</p><p>-includes: skull, vertebral column, rib cage</p><p>-bones involved with protecting, supporting, and carrying other body parts</p>
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Appendicular Skeleton

<p>-bones of the upper and lower limbs &amp; girdles</p><p>-includes hip and shoulder</p><p>-bones involved in locomotion</p>

-bones of the upper and lower limbs & girdles

-includes hip and shoulder

-bones involved in locomotion

<p>-bones of the upper and lower limbs &amp; girdles</p><p>-includes hip and shoulder</p><p>-bones involved in locomotion</p>
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The Skull

-most complex bony structure in the body

-composed of 22 bones *Cranial bones (8 bones) *Facial bones (14 bones)

-most are flat bones

-bones are united together by sutures *interlocking joints with saw-toothed or serrated appearances *exception is mandible which is freely moving

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The Cranium

<p>-encloses the brain and furnishes the attachment sites for the head &amp; neck muscles</p><p>-single and paired bones</p><p>-divided into 2 parts (Cranial vault &amp; Cranial base)</p>

-encloses the brain and furnishes the attachment sites for the head & neck muscles

-single and paired bones

-divided into 2 parts (Cranial vault & Cranial base)

<p>-encloses the brain and furnishes the attachment sites for the head &amp; neck muscles</p><p>-single and paired bones</p><p>-divided into 2 parts (Cranial vault &amp; Cranial base)</p>
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Single bones of the cranium

<p>-frontal</p><p>-occipital</p><p>-ethmoid</p><p>-sphenoid</p>

-frontal

-occipital

-ethmoid

-sphenoid

<p>-frontal</p><p>-occipital</p><p>-ethmoid</p><p>-sphenoid</p>
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Paired bones of the cranium

<p>-temporal</p><p>-parietal</p>

-temporal

-parietal

<p>-temporal</p><p>-parietal</p>
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Cranial vault

<p>-round portion that makes up the superior, lateral, and posterior portions of the skull</p>

-round portion that makes up the superior, lateral, and posterior portions of the skull

<p>-round portion that makes up the superior, lateral, and posterior portions of the skull</p>
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Cranial base

<p>-makes up the floor or interior portion of the skull</p><p>-Foramen magnus: where spinal cord exits the cranium</p>

-makes up the floor or interior portion of the skull

-Foramen magnus: where spinal cord exits the cranium

<p>-makes up the floor or interior portion of the skull</p><p>-Foramen magnus: where spinal cord exits the cranium</p>
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Cranial Fossae

<p>-contoured depressions that make up the floor of the cranium</p><p>-Anterior cranial fossa</p><p>-Middle cranial fossa</p><p>-Posterior cranial fossa</p>

-contoured depressions that make up the floor of the cranium

-Anterior cranial fossa

-Middle cranial fossa

-Posterior cranial fossa

<p>-contoured depressions that make up the floor of the cranium</p><p>-Anterior cranial fossa</p><p>-Middle cranial fossa</p><p>-Posterior cranial fossa</p>
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Anterior cranial fossa

<p>-frontal bone, ethmoid bone, and sphenoid bone</p><p>-supports the frontal lobe</p>

-frontal bone, ethmoid bone, and sphenoid bone

-supports the frontal lobe

<p>-frontal bone, ethmoid bone, and sphenoid bone</p><p>-supports the frontal lobe</p>
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Middle cranial fossa

<p>-sphenoid bone and temporal bone</p><p>-supports the temporal lobe and the pituitary gland</p>

-sphenoid bone and temporal bone

-supports the temporal lobe and the pituitary gland

<p>-sphenoid bone and temporal bone</p><p>-supports the temporal lobe and the pituitary gland</p>
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Posterior cranial fossa

<p>-temporal bone and occipital bone</p><p>-supports the cerebellum and part of the brainstem</p>

-temporal bone and occipital bone

-supports the cerebellum and part of the brainstem

<p>-temporal bone and occipital bone</p><p>-supports the cerebellum and part of the brainstem</p>
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Cranial Sutures

<p>-immovable joints that form boundaries between the cranial bones</p><p>-4 major sutures: *Coronal suture *Lambdoid suture *Sagittal suture *Squamous suture</p>

-immovable joints that form boundaries between the cranial bones

-4 major sutures: *Coronal suture *Lambdoid suture *Sagittal suture *Squamous suture

<p>-immovable joints that form boundaries between the cranial bones</p><p>-4 major sutures: *Coronal suture *Lambdoid suture *Sagittal suture *Squamous suture</p>
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Coronal suture

<p>-extends laterally across the superior surface along the coronal plane</p><p>-articulation between frontal and parietal bones</p>

-extends laterally across the superior surface along the coronal plane

-articulation between frontal and parietal bones

<p>-extends laterally across the superior surface along the coronal plane</p><p>-articulation between frontal and parietal bones</p>
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Lambdoid suture

<p>-arc across the posterior surface of the skull</p><p>-looks like a lambda (l)</p><p>-articulation between parietal and occipital bones</p>

-arc across the posterior surface of the skull

-looks like a lambda (l)

-articulation between parietal and occipital bones

<p>-arc across the posterior surface of the skull</p><p>-looks like a lambda (l)</p><p>-articulation between parietal and occipital bones</p>
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Sagittal suture

<p>-extends between coronal and lambdoid sutures along the midsagittal plane</p><p>-articulates between the paired parietal bones</p>

-extends between coronal and lambdoid sutures along the midsagittal plane

-articulates between the paired parietal bones

<p>-extends between coronal and lambdoid sutures along the midsagittal plane</p><p>-articulates between the paired parietal bones</p>
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Squamous suture

<p>-one on each side of the skull</p><p>-articulates between the temporal and parietal bone (on a side)</p>

-one on each side of the skull

-articulates between the temporal and parietal bone (on a side)

<p>-one on each side of the skull</p><p>-articulates between the temporal and parietal bone (on a side)</p>
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Facial Skeleton

<p>-bones that form the framework for the face</p><p>-single bones</p><p>-paired bones</p>

-bones that form the framework for the face

-single bones

-paired bones

<p>-bones that form the framework for the face</p><p>-single bones</p><p>-paired bones</p>
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Single bones of facial skeleton

<p>-mandible</p><p>-vomer</p>

-mandible

-vomer

<p>-mandible</p><p>-vomer</p>
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Paired bones of facial skeleton

<p>-nasal bones</p><p>-lacrimal bones</p><p>-zygomatic bone</p><p>-palatine bones</p><p>-maxilla</p><p>-inferior nasal concha</p>

-nasal bones

-lacrimal bones

-zygomatic bone

-palatine bones

-maxilla

-inferior nasal concha

<p>-nasal bones</p><p>-lacrimal bones</p><p>-zygomatic bone</p><p>-palatine bones</p><p>-maxilla</p><p>-inferior nasal concha</p>
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Function of facial skeleton

<p>-contain or form cavities for the special sense organs (sight, smell, taste)</p><p>-turbinate air</p><p>-provides openings for the passage of air and food</p><p>-securing teeth</p><p>-anchor facial muscle</p>

-contain or form cavities for the special sense organs (sight, smell, taste)

-turbinate air

-provides openings for the passage of air and food

-securing teeth

-anchor facial muscle

<p>-contain or form cavities for the special sense organs (sight, smell, taste)</p><p>-turbinate air</p><p>-provides openings for the passage of air and food</p><p>-securing teeth</p><p>-anchor facial muscle</p>
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Cavities of skull

<p>-cranial</p><p>-orbital</p><p>-nasal</p><p>-oral</p>

-cranial

-orbital

-nasal

-oral

<p>-cranial</p><p>-orbital</p><p>-nasal</p><p>-oral</p>
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Cranial cavity

<p>-largest cavity</p><p>-surrounds the brain</p>

-largest cavity

-surrounds the brain

<p>-largest cavity</p><p>-surrounds the brain</p>
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Orbital cavities

<p>-contain eyeballs, blood vessels, muscles, nerves, and lacrimal glands that secrete tears</p><p>-formed by frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, zygomatic, palantine, maxilla, and lacrimal bones</p>

-contain eyeballs, blood vessels, muscles, nerves, and lacrimal glands that secrete tears

-formed by frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, zygomatic, palantine, maxilla, and lacrimal bones

<p>-contain eyeballs, blood vessels, muscles, nerves, and lacrimal glands that secrete tears</p><p>-formed by frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, zygomatic, palantine, maxilla, and lacrimal bones</p>
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Nasal cavity

<p>-contains passages for air and special sensory neurons for smell; it is considered the first part of the respiratory tract</p><p>-divided by the septum (formed by vomer &amp; ethmoid bone)</p><p>-formed by sphenoid, ethmoid, palantine, nasal bones, maxilla, &amp; inferior nasal concha</p>

-contains passages for air and special sensory neurons for smell; it is considered the first part of the respiratory tract

-divided by the septum (formed by vomer & ethmoid bone)

-formed by sphenoid, ethmoid, palantine, nasal bones, maxilla, & inferior nasal concha

<p>-contains passages for air and special sensory neurons for smell; it is considered the first part of the respiratory tract</p><p>-divided by the septum (formed by vomer &amp; ethmoid bone)</p><p>-formed by sphenoid, ethmoid, palantine, nasal bones, maxilla, &amp; inferior nasal concha</p>
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Oral cavity

<p>-contains teeth, tongue, a passage for both food and air, and most of the salivary glands</p><p>-formed by mandible and maxilla</p>

-contains teeth, tongue, a passage for both food and air, and most of the salivary glands

-formed by mandible and maxilla

<p>-contains teeth, tongue, a passage for both food and air, and most of the salivary glands</p><p>-formed by mandible and maxilla</p>
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Nasal and paranasal sinuses

<p>-air filled chambers within the bones of the skull</p><p>-located around the nasal cavity *4 paranasal sinuses *named for which bone they are located</p><p>-possess small openings between sinuses and nasal cavity</p><p>-mucus-lined and air-filled *air moves in from nasal cavity *mucus drains out to nasal cavity</p>

-air filled chambers within the bones of the skull

-located around the nasal cavity *4 paranasal sinuses *named for which bone they are located

-possess small openings between sinuses and nasal cavity

-mucus-lined and air-filled *air moves in from nasal cavity *mucus drains out to nasal cavity

<p>-air filled chambers within the bones of the skull</p><p>-located around the nasal cavity *4 paranasal sinuses *named for which bone they are located</p><p>-possess small openings between sinuses and nasal cavity</p><p>-mucus-lined and air-filled *air moves in from nasal cavity *mucus drains out to nasal cavity</p>
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Function of nasal and paranasal sinuses

<p>-help to warm &amp; humidify air</p><p>-lighten the skull</p><p>-enhance resonance of the voice</p>

-help to warm & humidify air

-lighten the skull

-enhance resonance of the voice

<p>-help to warm &amp; humidify air</p><p>-lighten the skull</p><p>-enhance resonance of the voice</p>
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Hyoid bone

<p>-found in the anterior neck region</p><p>-no direct articulations with any other bones *position maintained by a combination of ligaments and muscles</p>

-found in the anterior neck region

-no direct articulations with any other bones *position maintained by a combination of ligaments and muscles

<p>-found in the anterior neck region</p><p>-no direct articulations with any other bones *position maintained by a combination of ligaments and muscles</p>
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Lesser and greater horns

<p>-2 pairs of projections in hyoid bone</p><p>-important sites of attachment for muscles involved in swallowing and speech production</p>

-2 pairs of projections in hyoid bone

-important sites of attachment for muscles involved in swallowing and speech production

<p>-2 pairs of projections in hyoid bone</p><p>-important sites of attachment for muscles involved in swallowing and speech production</p>
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Vertebral column

<p>-4 divisions &amp; 4 curvatures *Cervical *Thoracic *Lumbar *Sacral *Coccygeal</p><p>(letter designates the type of vertebrae and a subscripted number its position)</p>

-4 divisions & 4 curvatures *Cervical *Thoracic *Lumbar *Sacral *Coccygeal

(letter designates the type of vertebrae and a subscripted number its position)

<p>-4 divisions &amp; 4 curvatures *Cervical *Thoracic *Lumbar *Sacral *Coccygeal</p><p>(letter designates the type of vertebrae and a subscripted number its position)</p>
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Cervical vertebrae

<p>-7</p><p>-concave curvature</p>

-7

-concave curvature

<p>-7</p><p>-concave curvature</p>
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Thoracic vertebrae

<p>-12</p><p>-convex curvature</p>

-12

-convex curvature

<p>-12</p><p>-convex curvature</p>
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Lumbar vertebrae

<p>-5</p><p>-concave curvature</p>

-5

-concave curvature

<p>-5</p><p>-concave curvature</p>
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Sacral vertebrae

<p>-5</p><p>-vertebrae are fused, called the sacrum</p><p>-convex curvature</p>

-5

-vertebrae are fused, called the sacrum

-convex curvature

<p>-5</p><p>-vertebrae are fused, called the sacrum</p><p>-convex curvature</p>
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Coccygeal vertebrae

<p>-4</p><p>-vertebrae are fused, called the coccyx</p>

-4

-vertebrae are fused, called the coccyx

<p>-4</p><p>-vertebrae are fused, called the coccyx</p>
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Why does the spine curve?

<p>-provides flexibility &amp; increased resilience</p><p>-better supports the weight of body</p><p>-functions more like a spring</p>

-provides flexibility & increased resilience

-better supports the weight of body

-functions more like a spring

<p>-provides flexibility &amp; increased resilience</p><p>-better supports the weight of body</p><p>-functions more like a spring</p>
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Body (structure of vertebrae)

<p>-weight-bearing portion</p><p>-located anteriorly</p>

-weight-bearing portion

-located anteriorly

<p>-weight-bearing portion</p><p>-located anteriorly</p>
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Vertebral foramen (structure of vertebrae)

<p>-space between the body &amp; arch</p><p>-make up the vertebral canal</p>

-space between the body & arch

-make up the vertebral canal

<p>-space between the body &amp; arch</p><p>-make up the vertebral canal</p>
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Vertebral arch (structure of the vertebrae)

<p>-composite structure</p><p>-located posteriorly</p><p>-composed of 2 pedicles and 2 laminae</p>

-composite structure

-located posteriorly

-composed of 2 pedicles and 2 laminae

<p>-composite structure</p><p>-located posteriorly</p><p>-composed of 2 pedicles and 2 laminae</p>
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Spinal process

<p>-single</p><p>-extends anteriorly</p>

-single

-extends anteriorly

<p>-single</p><p>-extends anteriorly</p>
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Articular processes

<p>-2 pairs</p><p>-extend superiorly &amp; inferiorly</p>

-2 pairs

-extend superiorly & inferiorly

<p>-2 pairs</p><p>-extend superiorly &amp; inferiorly</p>
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Transverse processes

<p>-one pair</p><p>-extend laterally</p>

-one pair

-extend laterally

<p>-one pair</p><p>-extend laterally</p>
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Intervertebral discs

<p>-reside between the vertebrae to provide cushioning</p><p>-2 parts: *Anulus fibrosis *Nucleus pulposus</p>

-reside between the vertebrae to provide cushioning

-2 parts: *Anulus fibrosis *Nucleus pulposus

<p>-reside between the vertebrae to provide cushioning</p><p>-2 parts: *Anulus fibrosis *Nucleus pulposus</p>
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Anulus fibrosis

<p>-outer portion</p><p>-composed of collagen fibers and fibrocartilage</p><p>-limits the expansion of the nucleus pulposus</p>

-outer portion

-composed of collagen fibers and fibrocartilage

-limits the expansion of the nucleus pulposus

<p>-outer portion</p><p>-composed of collagen fibers and fibrocartilage</p><p>-limits the expansion of the nucleus pulposus</p>
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Nucleus pulposus

<p>-inner portion of the disc</p><p>-elastic and compressible</p>

-inner portion of the disc

-elastic and compressible

<p>-inner portion of the disc</p><p>-elastic and compressible</p>
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Cervical vertebrae

<p>-Body shape &amp; size: *small and oval *C1 lacks a body *C2 has the dens on the superior surface of its body</p><p>Vertebral foramen shape: triangular</p><p>Transverse processes: contain transverse foramina</p><p>Spinous processes: *most are fork-shaped *C1 lacks a spinous process</p>

-Body shape & size: *small and oval *C1 lacks a body *C2 has the dens on the superior surface of its body

Vertebral foramen shape: triangular

Transverse processes: contain transverse foramina

Spinous processes: *most are fork-shaped *C1 lacks a spinous process

<p>-Body shape &amp; size: *small and oval *C1 lacks a body *C2 has the dens on the superior surface of its body</p><p>Vertebral foramen shape: triangular</p><p>Transverse processes: contain transverse foramina</p><p>Spinous processes: *most are fork-shaped *C1 lacks a spinous process</p>
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Thoracic vertebrae

<p>-Body shape &amp; size: *larger and heart-shaped *contain costal facets</p><p>Vertebral foramen shape: circular</p><p>Transverse processes: *long *contain articular facets for ribs</p><p>Spinous processes: *long *point inferiorly</p>

-Body shape & size: *larger and heart-shaped *contain costal facets

Vertebral foramen shape: circular

Transverse processes: *long *contain articular facets for ribs

Spinous processes: *long *point inferiorly

<p>-Body shape &amp; size: *larger and heart-shaped *contain costal facets</p><p>Vertebral foramen shape: circular</p><p>Transverse processes: *long *contain articular facets for ribs</p><p>Spinous processes: *long *point inferiorly</p>
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Lumbar vertebrae

<p>-Body shape &amp; size: *largest *kidney-shaped</p><p>Vertebral foramen shape: -flattened triangular</p><p>Transverse processes: *short *no facets or foramina</p><p>Spinous processes: *thick *point posteriorly</p>

-Body shape & size: *largest *kidney-shaped

Vertebral foramen shape: -flattened triangular

Transverse processes: *short *no facets or foramina

Spinous processes: *thick *point posteriorly

<p>-Body shape &amp; size: *largest *kidney-shaped</p><p>Vertebral foramen shape: -flattened triangular</p><p>Transverse processes: *short *no facets or foramina</p><p>Spinous processes: *thick *point posteriorly</p>
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Sacrum

<p>-formed by 5 fused vertebrae</p><p>-superior articular process connects to hip</p><p>-possesses foramen for blood vessels &amp; spinal nerves to pass through</p>

-formed by 5 fused vertebrae

-superior articular process connects to hip

-possesses foramen for blood vessels & spinal nerves to pass through

<p>-formed by 5 fused vertebrae</p><p>-superior articular process connects to hip</p><p>-possesses foramen for blood vessels &amp; spinal nerves to pass through</p>
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Coccyx

<p>-formed by 4 fused vertebrae *(occurs around age 25)</p><p>-attachment site for several ligaments</p>

-formed by 4 fused vertebrae *(occurs around age 25)

-attachment site for several ligaments

<p>-formed by 4 fused vertebrae *(occurs around age 25)</p><p>-attachment site for several ligaments</p>
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Thoracic cage: Sternum

<p>-breastbone</p><p>-stabilizes the thoracic cage</p><p>-protects the heart, vena cava, and thymus</p><p>-made of 3 bones: *Manubrium *Body *Xiphoid process</p>

-breastbone

-stabilizes the thoracic cage

-protects the heart, vena cava, and thymus

-made of 3 bones: *Manubrium *Body *Xiphoid process

<p>-breastbone</p><p>-stabilizes the thoracic cage</p><p>-protects the heart, vena cava, and thymus</p><p>-made of 3 bones: *Manubrium *Body *Xiphoid process</p>
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Manubrium

<p>-articulates with clavicle and ribs</p><p>-part of the sternum</p>

-articulates with clavicle and ribs

-part of the sternum

<p>-articulates with clavicle and ribs</p><p>-part of the sternum</p>
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Body

<p>-articulates with ribs</p><p>-part of sternum</p>

-articulates with ribs

-part of sternum

<p>-articulates with ribs</p><p>-part of sternum</p>
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Xiphoid process

<p>-initially composed of hyaline cartilage, ossifies by age 40</p><p>-attachment point for the abdominal muscles</p><p>-part of sternum</p>

-initially composed of hyaline cartilage, ossifies by age 40

-attachment point for the abdominal muscles

-part of sternum

<p>-initially composed of hyaline cartilage, ossifies by age 40</p><p>-attachment point for the abdominal muscles</p><p>-part of sternum</p>
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Thoracic cage: Ribs

<p>-all attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae</p><p>-true &amp; false ribs</p>

-all attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae

-true & false ribs

<p>-all attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae</p><p>-true &amp; false ribs</p>
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True ribs

<p>-ribs 1-7</p><p>-attach directly to sternum</p>

-ribs 1-7

-attach directly to sternum

<p>-ribs 1-7</p><p>-attach directly to sternum</p>
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False ribs

<p>-ribs 8-12</p><p>-ribs 8-10 attach to rib 7</p><p>-ribs 11 &amp; 12 are floating ribs</p>

-ribs 8-12

-ribs 8-10 attach to rib 7

-ribs 11 & 12 are floating ribs

<p>-ribs 8-12</p><p>-ribs 8-10 attach to rib 7</p><p>-ribs 11 &amp; 12 are floating ribs</p>
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Rib structure

<p>-bowed flat bone</p><p>*Shaft *Head *Neck *Angle *Tubercle</p>

-bowed flat bone

*Shaft *Head *Neck *Angle *Tubercle

<p>-bowed flat bone</p><p>*Shaft *Head *Neck *Angle *Tubercle</p>
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Shaft

<p>-comprises the bulk of rib</p>

-comprises the bulk of rib

<p>-comprises the bulk of rib</p>
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Head

<p>-articulates with the thoracic vertebrae at the costal groove</p><p>-divided into the superior and inferior articular facets</p>

-articulates with the thoracic vertebrae at the costal groove

-divided into the superior and inferior articular facets

<p>-articulates with the thoracic vertebrae at the costal groove</p><p>-divided into the superior and inferior articular facets</p>
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Neck

<p>-area between the head and tubercle</p>

-area between the head and tubercle

<p>-area between the head and tubercle</p>
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Angle

<p>-the point where the ribs curves toward the sternum</p>

-the point where the ribs curves toward the sternum

<p>-the point where the ribs curves toward the sternum</p>
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Tubercle

<p>-articulates with the transverse process of the vertebrae</p>

-articulates with the transverse process of the vertebrae

<p>-articulates with the transverse process of the vertebrae</p>
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The pectoral girdle: Clavicle

<p>-composed of 2 bones: Clavicle and Scapula</p><p>(aka collar bone)</p><p>-located anteriorly</p><p>-attachment point for many muscles</p><p>-acts as a brace to hold the arms and scapula away from the body</p><p>-Sternal end *articulates with the manubrium of the sternum</p><p>-Acromial end *articulates with the acromion of the scapula</p>

-composed of 2 bones: Clavicle and Scapula

(aka collar bone)

-located anteriorly

-attachment point for many muscles

-acts as a brace to hold the arms and scapula away from the body

-Sternal end *articulates with the manubrium of the sternum

-Acromial end *articulates with the acromion of the scapula

<p>-composed of 2 bones: Clavicle and Scapula</p><p>(aka collar bone)</p><p>-located anteriorly</p><p>-attachment point for many muscles</p><p>-acts as a brace to hold the arms and scapula away from the body</p><p>-Sternal end *articulates with the manubrium of the sternum</p><p>-Acromial end *articulates with the acromion of the scapula</p>
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The pectoral girdle: Scapula

<p>(aka shoulder blade)</p><p>-located posteriorly *attached to the axial skeleton via articulation with the clavicle and various muscles</p><p>-Dorsal surface possesses ridge called the spine *ends at the acromion which articulates with the clavicle</p><p>-Lateral border *Glenoid cavity serves as the site of articulation with humerus</p><p>-3 fossae for muscle attachment *(Ventral surface) - subscapular *(Dorsal surface) - supraspinous &amp; infraspinous</p>

(aka shoulder blade)

-located posteriorly *attached to the axial skeleton via articulation with the clavicle and various muscles

-Dorsal surface possesses ridge called the spine *ends at the acromion which articulates with the clavicle

-Lateral border *Glenoid cavity serves as the site of articulation with humerus

-3 fossae for muscle attachment *(Ventral surface) - subscapular *(Dorsal surface) - supraspinous & infraspinous

<p>(aka shoulder blade)</p><p>-located posteriorly *attached to the axial skeleton via articulation with the clavicle and various muscles</p><p>-Dorsal surface possesses ridge called the spine *ends at the acromion which articulates with the clavicle</p><p>-Lateral border *Glenoid cavity serves as the site of articulation with humerus</p><p>-3 fossae for muscle attachment *(Ventral surface) - subscapular *(Dorsal surface) - supraspinous &amp; infraspinous</p>
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Humerus

<p>-articulates with scapula to form the shoulder</p><p>*head *tubercules (greater &amp; lesser) *deltoid tuberosity</p><p>articulates with ulna and radius to form the elbow *distal end *capitulum *trochlea *epicondyles (lateral &amp; medial)</p>

-articulates with scapula to form the shoulder

*head *tubercules (greater & lesser) *deltoid tuberosity

articulates with ulna and radius to form the elbow *distal end *capitulum *trochlea *epicondyles (lateral & medial)

<p>-articulates with scapula to form the shoulder</p><p>*head *tubercules (greater &amp; lesser) *deltoid tuberosity</p><p>articulates with ulna and radius to form the elbow *distal end *capitulum *trochlea *epicondyles (lateral &amp; medial)</p>
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Head of humerus

<p>-proximal end</p><p>-fits into the Glenoid cavity</p>

-proximal end

-fits into the Glenoid cavity

<p>-proximal end</p><p>-fits into the Glenoid cavity</p>
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Tubercules (Greater & Lesser)

<p>attachment sites for the rotator cuff</p>

attachment sites for the rotator cuff

<p>attachment sites for the rotator cuff</p>
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Deltoid tuberosity

<p>attachment for the deltoid muscle</p>

attachment for the deltoid muscle

<p>attachment for the deltoid muscle</p>
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Capitulum

<p>-lateral</p><p>-articulates with the head of the radius</p>

-lateral

-articulates with the head of the radius

<p>-lateral</p><p>-articulates with the head of the radius</p>
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Trochlea

<p>-medial</p><p>-articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna</p>

-medial

-articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna

<p>-medial</p><p>-articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna</p>
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Epicondyles (lateral & medial)

<p>-attachment sites for muscles</p><p>-ulnar nerve travels posterior to the medial epicondyle</p>

-attachment sites for muscles

-ulnar nerve travels posterior to the medial epicondyle

<p>-attachment sites for muscles</p><p>-ulnar nerve travels posterior to the medial epicondyle</p>
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Forearm

<p>-includes the ulna and radius *connected via interosseous membrane</p><p>-ulna</p><p>-radius</p>

-includes the ulna and radius *connected via interosseous membrane

-ulna

-radius

<p>-includes the ulna and radius *connected via interosseous membrane</p><p>-ulna</p><p>-radius</p>
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Ulna

<p>-medial bone</p><p>-slightly longer than the radius</p><p>-trochlear notch</p><p>-olecranon</p><p>-styloidprocess: connects to the wrist</p>

-medial bone

-slightly longer than the radius

-trochlear notch

-olecranon

-styloidprocess: connects to the wrist

<p>-medial bone</p><p>-slightly longer than the radius</p><p>-trochlear notch</p><p>-olecranon</p><p>-styloidprocess: connects to the wrist</p>
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Trochlear notch

<p>forms the elbow joint with humerus</p>

forms the elbow joint with humerus

<p>forms the elbow joint with humerus</p>
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Olecranon

<p>bony end of the elbow</p>

bony end of the elbow

<p>bony end of the elbow</p>
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Radius

<p>-lateral bone</p><p>-styloid process: connects to the wrist</p>

-lateral bone

-styloid process: connects to the wrist

<p>-lateral bone</p><p>-styloid process: connects to the wrist</p>
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Carpal bones

<p>-wrist bones</p><p>-8 per wrist</p><p>-closely united by ligaments</p><p>-2 rows, lateral to medial *proximal row *distal row</p>

-wrist bones

-8 per wrist

-closely united by ligaments

-2 rows, lateral to medial *proximal row *distal row

<p>-wrist bones</p><p>-8 per wrist</p><p>-closely united by ligaments</p><p>-2 rows, lateral to medial *proximal row *distal row</p>
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Proximal row of carpal bones

<p>-Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform</p><p>(Some Lunatics Try Positions)</p>

-Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform

(Some Lunatics Try Positions)

<p>-Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform</p><p>(Some Lunatics Try Positions)</p>
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Distal row of carpal bones

<p>-Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate</p><p>(That They Can&apos;t Handle)</p>

-Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate

(That They Can't Handle)

<p>-Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate</p><p>(That They Can&apos;t Handle)</p>
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Hands

<p>-palms</p><p>-fingers</p>

-palms

-fingers

<p>-palms</p><p>-fingers</p>
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Palms

<p>-5 metacarpal bones</p><p>-thumb or pollux (l) to Pinky (V) *lateral to medial</p><p>-heads of metacarpals make up the knuckles</p>

-5 metacarpal bones

-thumb or pollux (l) to Pinky (V) *lateral to medial

-heads of metacarpals make up the knuckles

<p>-5 metacarpal bones</p><p>-thumb or pollux (l) to Pinky (V) *lateral to medial</p><p>-heads of metacarpals make up the knuckles</p>
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Fingers

<p>-14 phalanges (s. phalanx)</p><p>-Thumb (I) has 2 phalanges (proximal &amp; distal)</p><p>-Index finger (II) to Pinky (V) each have 3 phalanges each (proximal, middle, and distal)</p>

-14 phalanges (s. phalanx)

-Thumb (I) has 2 phalanges (proximal & distal)

-Index finger (II) to Pinky (V) each have 3 phalanges each (proximal, middle, and distal)

<p>-14 phalanges (s. phalanx)</p><p>-Thumb (I) has 2 phalanges (proximal &amp; distal)</p><p>-Index finger (II) to Pinky (V) each have 3 phalanges each (proximal, middle, and distal)</p>
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