Dutch History Midterm Golden Age

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Burgundian Estates

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Burgundian Estates

15th Century Took ahold of the Low Countries by conquest or marriage Mostly political and diplomatic Small units in patchwork of Low Countries needed protected so they paid taxes to Burgundian Rulers

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Guilds

An organized group of tradespeople Controlled the local markets and protected their members against competition from the outside More open than in other European countries bc no exclusion based on migratory status

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Dukes of Burgundy

Philip the Good and Charles the Bold Main goal was unification of Burgundy (to the south of Holland) and Holland Holland was made up of counties and duchies that were united in States General Needed to conquer Lorraine to achieve goal but failed Charles had 1 daughter Mary

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Grand Privilege

Agreement in 1477 Guaranteed local and communal rights Mary (daughter of Charles the Bold) wanted to be Duchess but she had to negotiate for it Outcome of agreement btw States General and Mary was the Grand Privilege

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Mary of Burgundy

Negotiated with States General to become Duchess Mary married Maximilian of Habsburg, Arch-Duke of Austria House of Burgundy and Hapsburgs now intertwined Succeeded by Philip the Fair

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Charles the V

Grandson of Mary and Max Born in Low Countries Absolute Monarch King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Low Countries finally united in 1543 by Charles V Only king that retires from being Emperor in 1555 Spainish possessions to son Phillip II HRE to brother Ferdinand

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Philip II

(1527-1598) King of Spain from 1556 to 1598 Catholic Born in Spain and didn't like to travel to the Low Countries (centralist govt in Spain) Helped lead the Counter Reformation by persecuting Protestants in his holdings A lot of strife in the Low Countries-- want of autonomy

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Margaret of Parma

Governess of the Low Countries under Philip II rule Sense of diplomacy and easy goingness Philip replaces her with the more brutal Duke of Alba Year of Wonder during her time as duchess negotiated slightly with Beggars if they stopped looting

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Duke of Alba

Spanish Duke sent by Philip to replace Margaret Very harsh, started the Inquisition tons of persecutions and new taxes, Tenth Penny

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the Dutch Revolt

The Dutch Revolt (1568-1648) = The Eighty Years War Spark of Revolt 1568: Philip ordered 3 noblemen to go to Brussels to negotiate, only 2 came and both were decapitated William of Orange = leader of rebels Still some loyalty in LC, kind of a civil war people fighting for 2 reasons

  1. freedom from Spain

  2. freedom of religion

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The Year of Wonder

1566 Year of violence Iconoclasm in churches Protestants vs Catholics Two theories as to how it started

  1. started in Flonders and moved its way up

  2. rich people gave $ to poor to break into churches Petition offered to Margaret of Parma by Beggars (stop persecutions then they would stop looting) Philip II sent Duke of Alba to LC to replace Margaret

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William of Nassau, Prince of Orange

Led Dutch Revolt against Philip II of Spain Born in Germany raised Roman Catholic in Charles V court in Breda but Protestant fam 1544 inherited title Prince of Orange later appointed governor of Holland, Zeeland, and Utrecht Became leader in Revolt bc he wanted to keep his provinces

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Wilhemus

written by unknown ghost writer for William of Orange about fighting tyranny, justification for revolt, even though the Dutch are losing Loyalty to God first then to the King Comparison to Israel Dutch like the ppl of Israel and William is David and King Saul is Philip II David fled from King Saul's tyranny and was later rewarded by God with kingdom of Israel

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Dutch Revolt First Phase

No successes William of Orange spent tons of $ Small army and attacked in the S. and N. but kept losing

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Dutch Revolt Turning Point

1572: Sea Beggars captured Brielle Calvinists took lead in Revolt Other cities in Holland and Zeeland sided with the Rebels Alba started marching to Holland retaking and saching towns Haarlem was recaptured and split the rebels into 2 geographical areas N. and S.

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Siege of Alkmaar

1573 captured by Alba Dutch flooded the country around Alkmaar Spanish withdrew and it was a big turning point North part of Low Countries free

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Siege of Leiden

1573-1574 Spanish focused on Leiden after Alkmaar bc more in the S William attacked from the East and Spanish left Leiden, defeated William, came back and continued siege Dutch flooded the surrounding area to free Leiden in Oct 1574 Alba left Low Countries and was replaced by Luis de Requesens

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Leiden University

present from William of Orange in 1575 after victory in Leiden

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Pacification of Ghent

1576 Unification of provinces to kick out Spainish Little effect bc religion was still a big issue Kept fighting spanish and a lot of land was conquered for Dutch control by 1579

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Batavian Myth

very influential story for Dutch Romans couldn't conquer the Batavians so there was an agreement to work together They were treated as Romans equals Leader was Julius Civilus Everybody wants to be their descendants

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Bible Belt

Today its a very religious part of the Netherlands a lot of Orthodox Calvinists in the middle between north and south Threatened from S during the revolt bc of invasions so they turned to religion

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Religion in Amsterdam

16th century: abt 1/4 of all buildings were religious ones Very Roman Catholic 1345 Miracle of Amsterdam (dying guy took communion, puked, eucharist (wouldn't burn) point of contention btw Catholics and Protestants

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Modern Devotion

Dissatisfaction with Roman Catholic Church in 14th century Back to the origins of Christian life Critical movement before the Reformation Leaders: Geert Grote and Thomas a Kempis

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Martin Luther

95 Thesis, posted in 1517, Led to Reformation Back to the original sources: the Bible Salvation by Gods grace only (no good works) or indulgences No depictions of God , Jesus, and saints No purgatory No transsubstantiation- bread and wine = symbols **Tolerance was not important to Luther Main goal is glorification of God

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Erasmus

Dutch humanist and theologian Critical of Roman Catholic Church Published "Novum Instrumentum" new edition of the New Testament **Religious Tolerance and free will are important Church must remain united

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Jean Calvin

French Protestant (16th century) who founded Calvinism Stressed doctrine of predestination predestination is problematic for rulers bc no absolute obedience to sovereign

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Freedom of conscience

Awarded by Union of Utrecht Freedom of religion in your own home/ in private Not the same as freedom of religion or freedom of worship as we think of it today

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Calvinism

Majority religion in Amsterdam Many people went to church but were not members 10% of pop was Calvinist Ministers paid with govt $ but it was not the state relgion Local Magistrates had varying degrees of tolerance for other religions on one hand and one the other had relationships with the Reformed church

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Judaism

Largest non Christian minority in Amsterdam Heavily persecuted until late 1500s Immigrants from Portugal (wealthier) and Eastern Europe (poorer) Not members of civic community so could not join guilds Many were among the cultural elite and were collectors and traders of art

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Mennonites

Anabaptists More mennonites than Lutherans Very progressive Went to New World (Pennsylvania) Pacifists so they did not participate in the Revolt Anabaptists started radical group and exiled to Germany then Meno Simons said they would be pacifists and moved back to Holland

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Lutherans

Mainly living in Amsterdam Not a huge population

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Roman Catholics

Large population in Amsterdam still Freedom of worship depended on local officials A lot of secret churches that looked plain from the outside

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Union of Utrecht

Treaty between the rebellious Northern provinces Agreement to drive out the Spaniards Working together on the army and warfare, foreign affairs, and national finances and taxes (to be arranged by the States-General) Freedom of Conscience granted for all

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Act of Abjuration

Issued by the states general in 1581 Refers to Grand Privilege Officially stated that Philip II was no longer sovereign

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Spanish Answer to Act of Abjuration

Reconquest by Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma Tried to reconquer the Southern Low Countries

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Fall of Antwerp

1585 Economic center in the LC Led to split btw Belgium and Netherlands Mass migration North Closure of the River Scheldt States took power after Fall of Antwerp became a Republic

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Old political structure

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New Political Structure

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French political Ideas in Dutch Republic

Similarities: Huguenots and Dutch believed tyrannical King could be revolted against Differences: France still said they needed a King, Dutch said they didn't need one Staten more important in Dutch Republic than in France Dutch more legalistic than French

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Italian political Ideas in Dutch Republic

Similarities: Both are Republics Differences: Italians (specifically Machiavelli) thought ppl are always selfish, Dutch wanted harmony not selfishness (ex. Polder thinking and water management) Justice important in the Netherlands but not Italy Freedom of Conscience in Netherlands but not Italy Self governance was a similarity

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the Winning Team

Oldenbarevelt (leader of Staten) and Maurice (Leader of Stadholders)

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John of Oldenbarnevelt

Leader of the Dutch regents (staten) 'Architect’ of the Dutch Republic Sovereign power to the (provincial) ‘Staten’

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Maurice of Nassau

Son of William of Orange Leader of Navy and Army Stadholder of several (but not all) provinces (Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, etc) 1590s: Recovered land lost to Spain in 1580s

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Battle of Nieuwpoort

1600 Oldenbarnevelt wanted to reconquer costal line and sent Maurice Maurice locked into tiny bubble in Nieuwpoort Marched back to north victorious Trust lost between Oldenbarnevelt and Maurice

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Twelve Years Truce

1609-1621 Cease fire with Spain so no more common enemy in Republic 2 parties fighting each other: "Haec Libertatis Ergo" and "Haec Religionis Ergo" Parties disagreed on if the church controls the staten or if the staten controls the church

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Haec Libertatis Ergo

• Liberal protestants • Free will • Arminius (theologian) • Remonstrants • State controls the church • Regents • Oldenbarnevelt

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Haec Religionis Ergo

• Orthodox Calvinists • Predestination • Gomarus (theologian) • Counter Remonstrants • State servant of the church • ‘People’ • Maurice

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Summit of the Crisis

1618-1619 Maurice started coup d’état Oldenbarnevelt decapitated at the Hague Remonstrants imprisoned and repressed (a lot emigrated) Maurice fired all liberals from city councils and replaced them with his supporters National Church Assembly (Synod) at Dordrecht to make new bible translation in Dutch

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Hugo Grotius

Leader of Remonstrants imprisoned but escaped with his wife

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Van Eyck Brothers

Medieval Painters Perfected the oil paint technique (used to be tempra paint) Glossy paintings with extreme details

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Jeroen Bosch

Medieval Painter Painted the weird parts of religion Heaven and Hell depicted in new ways Philip II stole a lot of his art from the Netherlands

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Italian light

Golden light in some paintings Tell tale sign of painters who went to Italy to study

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Lucas van Leyden

Early Renaissance painter "The Last Judgement" 1526 Brighter, with oil paint Inspired by Italians- lots of nudity Removed from Town Hall during Wonder Year

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Giorgio Vasari

Wrote an Art History Book in 1550 describing Roman, Greek, and Italian Ren. Art Carel van Mander translate it and added on section for LC artists

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Typical Dutch Art

Everyday scenes (genre art) Landscapes and nothing else in the painting, a lot of sky Realistic (realism) Still life Slaughtered animals

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JL Price's Theory of Painting vs Poetry

People known painters but not poets from golden age Painters are craftsmen but poets are hobbyists When nobility and HRC (main source of people who commissioned art) were gone after revolt, painters had to be original Poets still very traditional More complicated than this theory

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Classism

Mythological scenes Common in international art market

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Mannerism

Unnatural poses, gestures, movements, nudity Common pose was people falling Common in international art market

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Carravagism

Strong contrasts light-dark Ex. Dirk Van Burgen Common in international art market

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Realism

Very realist art Genre painting- not always depicting what life was really like sometimes just for show

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genre painting

Art depicting everyday life very common and typical dutch art ex. Milkmaid by Vermere kids playing or family in their house

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Eddy de Jongh

Introducing a new source to ‘decipher’ art: emblematic literature Paintings contain messages through symbols ex. open shoes means sexual availability (ie prostitutes)ex. Pretzels mean fragility, life could end at any moment Debate: is there a message or is it just a painting? He is more subtle than his followers

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emblematic literature

invented in 1531 booklet where there is a motto, picture or painting, and explanation

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Innovations of Dutch army

Marching Payment of soldiers

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Original Golden Age

Ovid wrote poem "Metamorphoses" in 1 ACE Golden age was first in the early stages of humanity Idealistic No need for rules bc there was no crime or war Sharing and no poverty but also no exploring People stayed in the same place their whole life No seasons just paradise Flipped from what we now think of as the Golden Age

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New Dutch Golden Age

Opposite of Ovid's golden age Dutch Golden age was a time of infrastructure, growth, and expansion Stealing from earth for metal and food, no longer content with foraging

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