Chapter 3

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federalism

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federalism

the sharing of power between the national government and the states.

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unitary system

a system where the central government has all of the power over subnational governments.

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confederal system

a system where the subnational governments have most of the power.

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federal system

a system where power is divided between the national and state governments.

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expressed or enumerated powers

authority specifically granted to a branch of the government in the Constitution.

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exclusive powers

powers only the national government may exercise.

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implied powers

authority of the federal government that goes beyond its expressed powers; powers not granted specifically to the national gover­ nment but considered necessary to carry out the enumerated powers.

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commerce clause

grants Congress the authority to regulate interstate business and commercial activity.

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necessary and proper or elastic clause

language in Article I, Section 8, granting Congress the powers necessary to carry out its enumerated powers.

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10
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supremacy clause

constitutional provision declaring that the Constitu­ tion and all national laws and treaties are the supreme law of the land.

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Tenth Amendment

reserves powers not delegated to the national government to the states and the people; the basis of federalism.

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reserved powers

powers not given to the national government, which are retained by the states and the people.

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concurrent powers

powers granted to both states and the federal government in the Constitution.

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full faith and credit clause

constitutional clause requiring states to recognize the public acts, records, and civil court proceedings from another state.

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extradition

the requirement that officials in one state return a defendant to another state where the crime was committed.

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privileges and immunities clause

prevents states from discrimina­ ting against people from out of state.

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Thirteenth Amendment

constitutional amendment that outlaws slavery.

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Fourteenth Amendment

constitutional amendment asserting that persons born in the United States are citizens and prohibits states from denying persons due process or equal protection under the law.

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dual federalism

a form of American federalism in which the states and the national government operate independently in their own areas of public policy.

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selective incorporation

the process through which the Supreme Court applies fundamental rights in the Bill of Rights to the states on a case­by­case basis.

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cooperative federalism

a form of American federalism in which the states and the national government work together to shape public policy.

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grants-in-aid

federal money provided to states to implement public policy objectives.

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fiscal federalism

the federal government’s use of grants­in­aid to influence policies in the states.

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categorical grants

grants­in­aid provided to states with specific provisions on their use.

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unfunded mandate

federal requirement the states must follow without being provided with funding.

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block grant

a type of grants­in­aid that gives state officials more authority in the disbursement of federal funds.

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revenue sharing

when the federal government apportions tax money to the states with no strings attached.

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devolution

returning more authority to state or local governments.

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