BIO 208 - Final Exam

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219 Terms

1

anatomy

studying the structures of an organism

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physiology

studying the functions of structures within an organism

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homeostasis

the body's stable state, control mechanisms consist of a receptor, control mechanism, and effector

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integumentary system

skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands; protects tissues, regulates body temperature, houses sensory receptors, synthesizes substances

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skeletal system

bones, ligaments, cartilage; provides framework, protection, & an attachment point for muscles, produces blood cells and stores inorganic salts

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muscular system

skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle; moves body parts, maintains posture, produces body heat

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nervous system

brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs; receives/interprets sensory receptor signals, causes muscles & glands to respond appropriately

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endocrine system

pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, thymus; helps regulate metabolism, secrete hormones & target tissue response

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cardiovascular system

heart, blood vessels; heart pumps blood to/from body parts, allows oxygen transport

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lymphatic system

lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen; transports lymph from tissue space to bloodstream, carries fatty substances away from digestive organs

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digestive system

mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine; receives food, breaks down nutrients so they can pass through membranes, eliminates unabsorbed materials

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respiratory system

nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs; takes in/releases air, exchanges gas between blood & air

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urinary system

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra; filters waste from blood, helps maintain fluid/electrolyte balance

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reproductive system

enables organisms to produce offspring; male: scrotum, testes, seminal vesicles, etc.; female: ovaries, uterus, vagina, etc.

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negative feedback

prevents sudden, severe changes in the body & corrects the set point, causes the opposite of bodily disruption to occur (eg. body temp, blood pressure, glucose regulation)

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positive feedback

increases actions of the body, is short-lived, does not require continuous adjustments (eg. blood clotting, birth)

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anatomical position

standing erect, facing forward, upper limbs at sides, palms facing forward, thumbs out laterally

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18

superior

toward the head

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19

inferior

away from the head

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anterior

toward the front of the body

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posterior

toward the back of the body

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22

medial

close to the midline of the bodyl

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lateral

away from the midline of the body

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proximal

nearer to the point of attachment of a limb

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distal

away from the point of attachment of a limb

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superficial

close to the surface of the skin

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27

deep

away from the surface of the skin

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internal

within the body

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external

outside of the body

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ipsilateral

occuring on the same side of the body

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contralateral

occurring on opposite sides of the body

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sagittal plane

plane that divides the body into left & right portions

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midsagittal plane

divides the body into equal left & right portions

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transverse plane

divides the body into superior & inferior portions

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frontal plane

divides the body into anterior & posterior portions

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36

cell theory

  • all living organisms are composed of one or more cells

  • cells are the smallest unit of life

  • cells can only come from pre-existing cells via cell division

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cytoskeleton

inner scaffolding of cell, gives animal cells shape & support

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nucleus

the genetic control center of the cell, stores hereditary information

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chromatin

contains the genetic material of the cell and becomes a chromosome

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nucleolus

where ribosomes are made, is inside the nucleus, is bigger in cells with active gene transcription

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mitochondria

the energy converters of the cell

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endosymbiosis

mitochondria may have existed as separate single celled bacteria-esque organisms billions of years ago

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lysosomes

the "garbage disposals" of the cells; round, membrane-enclosed, acid-filled vesicles that function as waste removal functions of the cells

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ribosomes

small clusters within the cell that translate genetic messages in protein synthesis

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rough ER

endoplasmic reticulum that modifies proteins to be shipped elsewhere in the organism

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smooth ER

endoplasmic reticulum that synthesizes lipids and detoxifies molecules like alcohol, drugs, and metabolic waste

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golgi bodies

the "mailroom" of the cell, receive proteins & package them, distribute them to other parts of the cell & release them outside of the cell

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peroxisomes

function to catalyze reactions that break down molecules by removing hydrogen or adding oxygen

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diffusion

movement of substances from a region of higher concentration to lower concentration

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osmosis

movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from regions of higher concentration to lower concentration

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cell membrane

the ____ ________ is composed of a phospholipid bilayer and several different types of transport proteins

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metabolism

all the chemical reactions that take place within an organism

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catabolism

when larger molecules are broken down into smaller ones, energy is released

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anabolism

when larger molecules are synthesized from smaller ones, requires energy input

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enzyme

controls the rate of metabolic reactions, lowers activation energy to start reactions

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ATP

adenosine triphosphate, form of energy with 3 phosphates

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ADP

adenosine diphosphate, form of energy with 2 phosphates

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cellular respiration

the harvesting of energy from food, 3 stages: glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain

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glycolysis

begins with a single molecule of glucose, results in 2 NADH & 2 ATP; produces 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (derivatives of glucose)

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citric acid cycle

yields a maximum of 32 ATP

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electron transport chain

ETC, a series of molecules located within the mitochondrial inner membrane, drives ATP synthase to produce ATP

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lactic acid

is produced in humans when glycolysis is used in anaerobic conditions

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ethanol

is produced in yeast when glycolysis is used in anaerobic conditions

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32 ATP

how many ATP are produced by cellular respiration?

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4 DNA bases

adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine

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sugar-phosphate backbone

what makes up the sides of the DNA molecule?

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0.10%

what percent of your DNA differs from other people?

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98%

what percent of the genome doesn't code for anything?

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gene

a unit of heredity that is passed down from parent to offspring

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genotype

the letters that contribute to a person's phenotype (eg. AA, Aa, or aa)

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phenotype

the expression of a genotype (eg. brown eyes, blue eyes, hazel eyes)

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transcription

first step of DNA synthesis, the DNA is read and a single copy is created to be translated to a protein

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translation

the information carried by mRNA is read, ingredients in cytoplasm are used to create proteins based on that instruction

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mutations

changes in DNA that tend to be disruptive but can be useful and necessary for evolution to take place

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epithelial tissue

tissue that covers organs & body surface, lines cavities and hollow organs (eg. simple columnar & pseudostratified columnar)

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connective tissue

most abundant type of tissue, provides support & protection, binds structures, serves as frameworks, fills spaces/stores fat, protects against infection, etc (eg. dense regular, cartilage)

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muscle tissue

contains muscle fibers, is contractile, consists of skeletal, smooth, & cardiac muscle (eg. skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle)

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nervous tissue

tissue found in brain, spinal cord, & nerves (eg. nerve cells)

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79

stratified squamous

which type of epithelial tissue is the skin?

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80

keratinized

when something is ___________, it means that the tissue contains keratin, is typically found on the skin

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simple columnar

what kind of epithelial tissue lines the gut?

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simple gland

a gland that has only one extension, can contain branches from that one extension

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compound gland

a gland that has several extensions off a main branch

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84

fibroblasts

what type of cells make collagen and elastic fibers?

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85

skin functions

  • protection from drying the body out/friction

  • protection from foreign organisms

  • maintains body temperature

  • excretes salt/sweat

  • produces vitamin D

  • contains sensory (touch) receptors

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86

epidermis

layer of the skin that grows continuously from the basal layer upwards; skin cells die as they move upward away from the growth site

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dermis

layer of skin that contains blood vessels & collagen/elastic fibers

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hypodermis

layer of the skin that mainly consists of fat

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melanocytes

cells that produce melanin and replicate slower than other skin cells, are scattered among basal cells

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90

eumelanin

pigment that produces darker hair colors (brown/black)

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pheomelanin

pigment that produces lighter hair colors (red, blonde)

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sebacous glands

glands that secrete oily sebum and are associated with hair

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sweat glands

glands that secrete a watery fluid mix to help expend heat on the surface of the skin

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94

skeletal system

  • support, movement, & protection of the body & internal organs

  • promotes the formation of blood cells

  • stores inorganic salts what system is this?

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95

long bone

a bone that has a shaft, 2 ends, and is longer than it is wide

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96

short bone

a bone that is shaped roughly as a cube and contains mostly spongy bone

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97

flat bone

a bone made up of a layer of spongy bone between two layers of compact bone

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98

irregular bone

the bone type that can vary in shape and structure, therefore not fitting into any other category

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99

epiphyseal plate

the main site of longitudinal growth of long bones, seals after puberty begins

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bone marrow

the part of the bone that manufactures bone stem cells and blood cells

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