Purposive Communication Lec 2

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the word used to describe the growing interdependence of the world's economies, cultures, and populations, brought about by cross-border trade in goods and services, technology, and flows of investment, people, and information

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70 Terms

1

the word used to describe the growing interdependence of the world's economies, cultures, and populations, brought about by cross-border trade in goods and services, technology, and flows of investment, people, and information

Globalization

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2

with it, the chances and possibility that people all around the world can live and work together have become tangible

Globalization

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3

the recognition and valuing of difference encompassing different factors

Diversity

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4

Factors of Diversity

- Age

- Gender

- Race

- Ethnicity

- Ability

- Religion

- Education

- Marital Status

- Sexual Orientation

- Income

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5

is the customs, knowledge, belief, values, behaviors, arts, social institutions, and achievements of a particular nation, people or other social group

Culture

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6

Communicators who fail to become sensitive to the nuances and differences of cultures may face grave consequences to one's self and to the group one belongs in, such as:

1. Paying a high price (e.g. result in conflict between countries)

2. Lost opportunities (e.g. failed business transactions)

3. Increased level of tension between people during meeting and social gatherings (e.g. difficulty in building camaraderie in sports events like the Olympics or SEA Games)

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7

are made up of members of the same general culture but differ in certain ethnic or sociological ways

Co-Cultures

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8

the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble a dominant group or assume the values, behaviors, and beliefs of another group (e.g. the minority group speaks the dominant language instead of their native language in order to fit in

Cultural Assimilation

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the process by which individuals may take on values and beliefs of the dominant culture and accommodate them in the public sphere, while maintaining the parent culture or their identity in the private sphere (e.g. the minority group speaks the native language when interacting with members of the dominant culture, while they speak their native language only when interacting with members of their co-cultural group)

Cultural Accommodation

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10

members of a co-culture resist instead of fitting in with the dominant or majority

Resistance or Separation

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11

the minority culture is trying to be recognized or acknowledged by the general culture as a unique or equal culture of its own

Resistance or Separation

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12

a style in which individuals have developed a pattern of avoiding expressing their opinions or feelings, protecting their rights, and identifying and meeting their needs

Passive

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13

a style in which individuals clearly state their opinions and feelings, and firmly advocate for their rights and needs without violating the rights of others

Assertive

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14

a style that tends to anger, create unnecessary conflict, and damage relationships at home or at work

Confrontational

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15

a discipline that studies communication across different cultures and social groups, or how culture affects of communication

Intercultural Communication

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16

describes the wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization or social context made up of individuals from different religious, social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds

Intercultural Communication

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17

occurs when interactants are of different races

Interracial Communication

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18

occurs when the communicating parties have different ethnic origins

Interethnic Communication

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19

occurs between persons representing political structures

International Communication

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20

includes all forms of communication among members of the same racial, ethnic, or other co-cultural groups

Intracultural Communication

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21

an evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one's own culture. in other words, it means that one may see their own culture as the correct way of living

Ethnocentrism

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22

a person with this kind of behavior tries to judge the culture of other people from the point of view of their own culture

Ethnocentrism

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23

Language, Religion, Custom, Behavior

Factors of Ethnocentrism

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24

the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than judged against the criteria of another

Cultural Relativism

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the opposite of ethnocentrism

Cultural Relativism

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26

variables used to differentiate or distinguish cultures

Cultural Dialectics

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27

the cultural dimension of individualism versus collectivism reveals how people define themselves in their relationship with others

Individualism vs collectivism

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Great Britain, The United States, Canada, France, Germany

Nations with individualistic cultures

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29

cultures with systems are tradition-bound which shapes the behavior and lifestyle of group members, while cultures with systems are generally encourage members to exhibit a more direct communication style

High context vs low context

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power distance measures the extent to which individuals accept power differences

High power distance vs low power distance

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31

cultures view power as a fact of life and are apt to stress its coercive or referent nature, such as: Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, India

High power distance

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cultures believe power should be used only when it is legitimate, thus, are apt to employ expert or legitimate power, such as: Israel, Sweden, The United States

Low power distance

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cultures differ in their attitudes towards gender roles

Masculine vs feminine cultures

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34

male aggressiveness, strength, and material symbols of success

Highly masculine cultures

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relationships, tenderness in members of both sexes, and high quality of life

Highly feminine cultures

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36

a mistaken idea or belief many people have about a thing or group that is based upon how they look outside, which may be untrue or only partly true

Stereotypes

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37

type of prejudice because what is on the exterior is a small part of who a person is

Stereotyping

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38

using one's race as grounds of suspecting a person of wrong acts

Racial profiling

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those of other cultures are judged based on stereotypes and not on actual experience

Preconceived opinions

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40

when opinions on culture become biased and hurtful and they develop a mindset that their culture is better than others

Prejudice

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41

is a major phenomenon, institution, or activity in a nation with which most citizens identify cognitively or emotionally and through which it is possible to describe the national culture and its frame of reference in depth (

Cultural Metaphor

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42

it is not biological; we do not inherit it. Much of learning culture is unconscious. We learn culture from families, peers, institutions, and media. The process of learning culture is known as enculturation.

Culture is learned

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43

because we share culture with other members of our group, we are able to act in socially appropriate ways as well as predict how others will act.

Culture is shared

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44

a symbol is something that stands for something else.

Culture is based on symbols

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all aspects of a culture are related to one another and to truly understand a culture, one must learn about all of its parts, not only a few.

Culture is integrated and interconnected

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cultures interact and change. Because most cultures are in contact with other cultures, they exchange ideas and symbols

Culture is dynamic

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47

are the application of knowledge and understanding of cultural characteristics and metaphors in a group for the goal of successful communication. are the blueprints for how this information will be exchanged

Communication Characteristics and Strategies

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48

people have various contexts in their communication on how they decide, do business, and others (as such, cultural contexts come into play)

Contextual Differences

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49

these differences are also influenced by cultural contexts. in the US, a signed business contract means looking forward to making future businesses while in Asian countries, it simply means as a simple agreement

Legal and Ethical Differences

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50

being aware of others' culture and how it affects your communication allows fostering of better relationships between individuals and helps avoid conflict

Social Differences

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51

Type of social difference where Asian workers are happier and more successful if they have good relationships with others while North Americans find satisfaction in finishing job assignments and following organizational policies.

Attitudes Towards Work and Success

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Type of social difference where some countries are more patriarchal while others consider their culture more matriarchal. In China and other Asian countries, people address their higher ups as their job titles while in the US, it only pertains to Mister and Miss

Roles and Status

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53

Type of social difference where in the Philippines, it may be alright to whistle to call from attention but it's not the same for Indians. Belching is considered wrong in the US and in Middle Eastern countries, but in Taiwan and China, it's considered a compliment.

Manners

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54

Type of social difference where in the US, Germany, and Switzerland, time is a precious tool. Meanwhile, in Spain and Middle Eastern countries, time isn't that big of a deal.

Concept of Time

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Type of social difference, the way Filipinos are hospitable towards foreigners while in Russia, Hong Kong, and India, they tend to show some biases and other times - racial discrimination towards other cultures.

Openness and Inclusiveness

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56

aside from social differences, you can differentiate the low context countries from high context ones through their non-verbal contexts

Nonverbal Differences

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in the US, they tend to accept the youth more into their decision-making processes while in Asian countries, the seniors are the valued, imbuing the values of respect towards elders

Age Differences

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in companies using traditional contexts, men hold a higher authority than women (they are considered as the important factor in the work force)

Gender Differences

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59

the style that's appropriate for the specific situation in writing and speaking.

Registers

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60

introduced three variables that determine how to analyze registers

Michael Halliday

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61

what type of language is used (halliday's variable)

Field

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62

how other people in the conversation affect the overall message (halliday's variable

Tenor

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63

the way of language is put into use either spoken or written (halliday's variable)

Mode

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64

language is unchangeable/immortalized (e.g. wedding vows, national anthems, Bible verses, etc.)

Frozen/ Static

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65

language that is used around businesses, formal gatherings, scholarly works, and other formal occasions (e.g. What kind of resources are beneficial to the company?)

Formal

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66

language that is less formal and is used around employers to employees, doctor's medication, and others that shows a consultative approach

Consultative

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67

language is used in simple conversations, there are no formalities and everybody could understand it with no hampers

Casual

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68

language used towards your family, loved ones, and special partners

Intimate

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69

the speaker needs to know the context, purpose, and audience to properly use the specific phrases and rules towards their intended audience

Registers of Written Language

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70

this register is a little tricky to do since there is no immediate feedback

Registers of Written Language

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