PSY 336 Quiz 2

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Oculomotor Cues

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40 Terms

1

Oculomotor Cues

Feedback from muscles around and within the eye. Cues from eye movement.

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2

Accommodation

Relaxing (thinner lens, weaker focus, distant objects) and contracting (thicker lens, stronger focus, closer objects) the ciliary muscles changes the shape of the lens. Relays information for objects within about 2 meters.

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3

Convergence

Eyes turn inward to keep objects in focus.

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4

Binocular Disparity

Difference in the relative positions of objects in the retinal images of the two eyes

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5

Optic Flow

How scene elements change as the observer moves THROUGH a scene. Motion Blur. Things closer to you move faster than things further away

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6

Focus of Expansion (FOE)

Point the observer is moving toward. Objects closer to the FOE move outward slowly, objects closer to the observer move outward quickly. Rate deepens on distance from the observer, which can be used to infer depth

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7

Deletion and Accretion

Objects are occluded (deleted) or revealed from behind occlusion (accreted). Specific distance where eyes do not cross

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8

Disparity

Difference in retinal image

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9

Crossed Disparity

In Front of Horopter

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10

Uncrossed Disparity

Behind the Horopter

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11

Motion Aftereffect

Cells get tired, perceive things spinning in one direction as spinning in the opposite.

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12

Image Aftereffect

See opposite color when staring at a color for too long. ~ Smooth Pursuit: Continuous smooth movement of the eyes to track a moving object (or to track a stationary object while moving)

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13

Bimodal Neurons

Respond to TWO modalities (kinds of senses such as visual and tactile)

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14

Cocktail Party Problem

Attend to and understand a single convo in a sea of noise. Other conversations are unattended

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15

Broadbent’s Filter Theory of Attention

“People do not process unattended stimuli beyond basic physical properties.” *States that Information is unavailable for later recall.

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16

Divided Attention

Attending multiple things at a time.

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17

Feature Search / Pop-Out Effect

Single differences pop out. “Features” of things being searched for.

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18

Top-Down Control

Voluntary attention, reflects deliberate conscious goals. ~ “Goal-relevant stimuli.”

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19

Bottom-Up Control

When low-level stimuli “capture” attention independent from the observer’s goals or intentions

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20

Frequency

More waves, pitch, notes of a song. Number of wave cycles per second

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21

Loudness

Perception of how loud something is, amplitude. Physical pressure of sound.

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22

Timbre

Sound quality - Tuning Fork vs Singing Drunk Dudes

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23

Cochlea

In the inner ear

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24

Auditory Path

Type 1 Auditory Nerve Fibers in Cochlea send info to the ipsilateral cochlear nucleus. Info first sent to the nucleus on the same side before crossing.

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25

Pinna

Weird ear wiggle shape. Useful in perceiving elevation

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26

Where and What streams

Similar to visual, connect to visual

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27

What stream

identifying and goes ventral temporal to frontal

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28

Where stream

location and goes dorsal temporal to parietal

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29

Perceiving elevation / distance of sound

Related to sound entering the pinna

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30

Spectral Shape Cue

Pinna-induced modification in a sound’s frequency spectrum. Modification of sound depends on elevation, allowing differences in frequency spectrum to be used to estimate elevation.

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31

Interaural Level Differences (ILD)

Relative loudness at two ears

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32

Acoustic Shadow

Head partially blocks sound waves traveling through it. Higher impact on higher frequencies

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33

Interaural Time Differences (ITD)

Relative time of arrival at the two ears. ~ Sound takes slightly longer to reach one ear than the other when sound is off center. Time difference is less than a millisecond, but still detected. Most effective for sudden onset sounds (clap, bang, snap) as opposed to complex extended waveforms

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34

Doppler Effect

Soundwaves compress with movement

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35

Phonemes

Smallest units of sound that, if changed, can change the meaning of a word. Ex: bAd Vs. bEd

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36

Vowels

Speech sounds produced with a relatively unrestricted flow of air through the pharynx and oral cavity. Produced by varying size and shape of the oral cavity.

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37

Broca’s Aphasia

Frontal lobe damage, impaired production but intact comprehension

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38

Wernicke’s Aphasia

Near the temporal junction, impaired comprehension but intact production.

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39

Deletion

Objects are occluded

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40

Accretion

revealed from behind occlusion

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