Biology I-Semester 2 Final 22-23

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What is sexual reproduction of bacteria called?

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Covers LTs. 4.3: Explain the process of bacterial reproduction, 5.1: Model the process of meiosis and discuss how it begins, and how this process leads to genetic variation, and 6.2: Model how organisms make proteins from their genetic code (Transcription & Translation).

62 Terms

1

What is sexual reproduction of bacteria called?

Conjugation

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2

Is binary fission sexual or asexual?

Asexual

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3

Does asexual reproduction make identical or genetically different cells?

Identical

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4

Bacteria do mitosis, true or false?

False

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5

Conjugation creates more cells, true or false?

False

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6

What is the name of the structure that is built to another cell during conjugation?

Pilus

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7

What do binary fission and mitosis have in common?

Identical cells, makes two cells

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8

What are two advantages of asexual reproduction?

Fast, less energy

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9

What shape is the bacterial chromosome?

Circular

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10

How many cells are created in binary fission?

Two

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11

How many cells are created in conjugation?

Zero

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12

What two processes do bacteria do to reproduce?

Binary fission and conjugation

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13

What is one thing that conjugation and binary fission have in common?

Bacteria do it

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14

What type of reproduction creates 4 daughter cells?

Sexual reproduction

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15

When homologous chromosomes are being separated, what phase is that?

Anaphase I

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16

When does crossing over occur?

Prophase I

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17

What process that involves egg and sperm eventually will happen to create a diploid organism?

Fertilization

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18

If diploid is a full set of chromosomes, what is haploid?

Half the chromosomes/one set of chromosomes

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19

When homologous pairs are separated, and the cell membrane is beginning to pinch together, what phase is that?

Telophase I

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20

When homologous chromosomes swap pieces of DNA, what is that called?

Crossing over

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21

When there are two genetically identical daughter cells, is that sexual or asexual reproduction?

Asexual reproduction

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22

When sister chromatids are being separated, and there are two cells present, what phase is that?

Anaphase II

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23

What is a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell called?

Karyotype

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24

If a karyotype has sex chromosomes, is that sexual or asexual reproduction?

Sexual reproduction

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25

How many cells are made at the end of meiosis?

Four

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26

What is the scientific term for sex cells?

Gametes

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27

If the haploid number of chromosomes is 14, what is the diploid number?

28

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28

What is the entire purpose of meiosis?

Create genetically different cells/offspring

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29

What is a pair of replicated, similar chromosomes from mom and dad called?

Homologous pair

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30

Does meiosis create genetically different or genetically identical offspring?

Different

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31

What is it called during Metaphase I when homologous chromosomes line up randomly?

Independent assortment

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32
<p>What phase is this?</p>

What phase is this?

Anaphase 1

  • homologous pairs are being pulled apart

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33
<p>What phase is this?</p>

What phase is this?

Anaphase II

  • sister chromatids are being pulled apart

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34
<p>What phase is this?</p>

What phase is this?

Cytokinesis I

  • two cells are finally separated -nucleus is reforming

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35
<p>What phase is this?</p>

What phase is this?

Interphase

  • DNA is in chromatin form -The nucleus is fully intact

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36
<p>What phase is this?</p>

What phase is this?

Metaphase I

  • Homologous pairs are lined up in the middle of the cell

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37
<p>What phase is this?</p>

What phase is this?

Metaphase II

  • Sister chromatids are lined up in the middle of the cell

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38
<p>What phase is this?</p>

What phase is this?

Prophase I

  • DNA is condensing to chromosomes

  • Crossing over happens

  • Spindle fibers are forming

  • Nucleus is going away

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39
<p>What phase is this?</p>

What phase is this?

Prophase II

  • Nucleus is going away

  • DNA is condensing to chromosomes

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40
<p>What phase is this?</p>

What phase is this?

Telophase I

  • Cells are starting to split

  • 1 cell going to 2

  • Can see a cleavage furrow

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41
<p>What phase is this?</p>

What phase is this?

Telophase II

  • Cells are starting to split

  • 2 cells going to 4

  • Can see a cleavage furrow

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42

If a DNA strand is TAC what will the mRNA strand be?

AUG

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43

Which happens first, transcription or translation?

Transcription

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44

What is the end product of transcription?

mRNA

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45

What is a codon?

A group of 3 nucleotides on mRNA

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46

Where does translation occur?

Cytoplasm

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47

What does tRNA do?

Brings in amino acids

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48

What is the end product of translation?

Protein

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49

What molecule has an anticodon?

tRNA

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50

How can you tell the beginning of a gene on DNA?

TAC

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51

Where does transcription occur?

Nucleus

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52

TRUE OR FALSE Methionine (Met) signals the end of an mRNA sequence.

FALSE- it codes for the start

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53

What are the types of RNA that participate in translation?

mRNA, tRNA, rRNA

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54

Why can't DNA leave the nucleus?

Could get damaged

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55

What is the final product of translation?

Protein

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56

What structure does mRNA leave through after transcription?

Nuclear pore

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57

What is the name of the tool you use to find the amino acid based on the mRNA codon?

Codon table

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58

What is responsible for reading the mRNA strand?

A ribosome (rRNA)

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59

What two processes is mRNA involved in?

Transcription, Translation

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60

Going from DNA to mRNA is what process?

Transcription

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61

Going from mRNA to a protein is what process?

Translation

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62

What is the monomer of a protein?

Amino Acids

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