Key Concepts in the Use of Biomaterials

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Biological testing

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27 Terms

1

Biological testing

The process of evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical devices through experiments and assessments on biological systems.

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2

Cell and molecular biology

The study of the structure, function, and interactions of cells and molecules, which is important for understanding biological interactions and testing.

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3

Body's protective and reparative responses

The natural responses of the body to protect and repair itself when exposed to foreign materials, such as medical devices.

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4

Sequence of events after biomaterial implantation

The chronological order of reactions and cellular responses that occur when a biomaterial is placed in a biological environment.

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5

Era of the Physician-Hero

A historical period when innovative physicians applied high-performance materials originally manufactured for other purposes to medical problems.

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6

Intraocular lenses

Artificial lenses implanted in the eye to replace the natural lens, developed by Sir Harold Ridley.

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7

Dialysis machine

A medical device invented by Willem Kolff using a modified washing machine to perform dialysis for patients with kidney failure.

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8

Arteriovenous shunt

A device developed by Belding Scribner and Wayne Quinton to create a connection between an artery and a vein for chronic dialysis.

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9

Medical Device Amendments

Legislation passed in 1976 to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medical devices, including the requirement for premarket approval by the FDA.

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10

Biocompatibility

The ability of a biomaterial to perform its intended function without causing harmful effects or adverse reactions in the biological system.

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11

Intersection of biology and materials

The field of biomaterials that focuses on the interaction between biological systems and materials used in medical devices.

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12

Biologically relevant testing

Testing methods and experiments that mimic the conditions and responses of biological systems to assess the compatibility and effectiveness of biomaterials.

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13

Cell phenotype

The observable characteristics and behaviors of a cell, determined by its specific gene expression and differentiation.

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14

Extracellular matrix (ECM)

The biological material produced by cells and residing between cells, providing physical support and regulating cell behavior.

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15

Integrins

Receptors that bind to extracellular matrix proteins and mediate cell-matrix interactions.

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16

Growth factors

Cell signaling molecules that promote cell proliferation, differentiation, and various cellular activities, crucial for tissue repair and wound healing.

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17

Cytokines

Cell signaling molecules that regulate immune cells and influence cellular activities, such as interferons, interleukins, and tumor necrosis factors.

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18

Chemokines

Cell signaling molecules that guide cell migration in response to a chemical gradient.

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19

Cell injury

Damage or harm to cells caused by various factors, such as toxic agents, trauma, or surgery, leading to cell death or inflammation.

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20

Macrophages

Immune cells that play a key role in the response to tissue injury and foreign materials, involved in eliminating damaged tissues and initiating repair processes.

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21

Fibrous encapsulation

The formation of fibrous tissue around foreign bodies or implants to isolate them from the surrounding biological environment.

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22

Foreign body reaction (FBR)

The biological response of the body to foreign materials, characterized by inflammation, encapsulation, and immune reactions.

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23

Implantation is an injury

The recognition that the placement of a biomaterial in a biological system triggers a series of reactions and responses similar to an injury.

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24

Innate immune system

The body's first line of defense against pathogens and foreign materials, providing immediate protection through non-specific immune responses.

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25

Adaptive immunity

The immune response that develops over time and is specific to particular antigens, involving the activation of immune cells and the production of antibodies.

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26

Water molecules and ions

Substances that rapidly reach the surface of a biomaterial upon implantation, initiating the initial reactions and interactions with the biological environment.

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27

Blood coagulation

The process of clot formation to prevent excessive bleeding and maintain hemostasis when a biomaterial is implanted in the body.

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