Chemistry terms

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Chemistry

75 Terms

1

chemistry

the study of composition, properties, and interactions of matter

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2

macroscopic domain

large enough to be sensed directly by human sight or touch

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3

microscopic domain

often visited in the imagination. Some aspects are visible through sophisticated instruments

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4

symbolic domain

specialized language representing components of the macroscopic and microscopic domains. Chemical symbols, chemical formulas, chemical equations, graphs, drawings, and calculations.

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5

matter

anything that occupies space and has mass

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6

plasma

the fourth state of matter that occurs naturally in the interior of stars, can also be made using high energy sources. A gaseous state of matter that contains electrically charged particles.

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7

substance

a form of matter that has definite composition and distinct properties

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8

mixture

a physical combination of two or more substances

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9

homogeneous mixture

is uniform throughout; also called a solution

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10

heterogeneous mixture

is not uniform throughout; has multiple different parts

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11

Law of Conservation of Matter

there is no detectable change in the total quantity of matter present when matter converts from one type to another (a chemical change) or changes among solid, liquid, or gaseous states (a physical change).

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12

mixture

can be separated by physical means into its components without changing the identities of the components.

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13

atom

is the smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element and can enter a chemical combination

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14

molecule

consists of two or more atoms joined by strong forces called chemical bonds; always contains the same elements in the same proportions by mass and by atom numbers

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15

physical property

one that can be observed and measured without changing the identity of the substance

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16

physical change

one in which the state of matter changes, but the identity of the matter does not change

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17

chemical property

one a substance exhibits as it interacts with another substance

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18

chemical change

one that results in a change of composition; the original substances no longer exists

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19

extensive property

depends on the amount of matter. The value is directly proportional to the amount of matter in question.

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20

intensive property

does not depend on amount of water

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21

measurements

provide much of the information informing the hypothesis, theories, and laws describing the behavior of matter

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22

english system

has units such as the foot, gallon, pound, etc.

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23

metric system

includes units such as meter, liter, kilogram, etc.

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24

international system of units

metric system

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25

conversion factor

a fraction in which the same quantity is expressed one way in the numerator and another way in the denominator; created from an equality statement

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26

Celcius scale

freezing point (pure water) 0 degrees; Boiling point (pure water) 100 degrees

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27

Kelvin scale

the "absolute" scale; lowest possible temperature Tk=TC+273.15

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28

Fahrenheit scale

common in the United States, freezing point (pure water) 32 degrees Celcius, boiling point (pure water) 212 degrees Celcius TF=(9/5)(TC)+32

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29

density

ratio of mass to volume; density is mass divided by volume

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30

SI-derived unit

kilogram per cubic meter

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31

Significant figures

the meaningful digits in a reported number

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32

uncertain digit

the last digit in a measured number

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33

exact numbers

considered to have an infinite number of significant figures and do not limit the number of significant figures as a result

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34

accuracy

tells us how close a measurement is to the true value

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35

precision

tells us how close a series of replicate measurements are to one another

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36

dimensional analysis

the use of conversion factors in problem solving; called the factor-labeled method

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37

Dalton's Atomic Theory

  1. all matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms

  2. all atoms of a given element have identical chemical properties

  3. atoms form chemical compounds by combining in whole-number ratios

  4. Atoms can change how they are combined, but they are neither created nor destroyed in ORDINARY chemical reactions.

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38

Law of Conservation of mass

there is no detectable change in mass during an ordinary chemical reaction

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39

Law of Constant Composition/ Definite Proportion

a chemical compound always contains the same elements with the same proportions by the number of the atoms of the constituent elements; a chemical compound always contains the same elements with the same proportions by mass, regardless of its size, shape, and physical state of the compound

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40

Thomson

discovered in the late 1800s that cathode ray are a stream of negatively charged particles now known as electrons. By varying the electric field and measuring the degree of deflection of cathode rays, determined the electron charge-to mass ratio to be : 1.76*10^11 C/Kg

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41

R.A. Millikan

determined the charge on an electron by examining the motion of tiny oil drops. 1.6022*10^-9 C

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42

Ernest Rutherford

used the positively charged particles that consists of two protons and two neutrons to study the structure of atoms. proposed a nuclear model: positive charge is concentrated in the nucleus, the nucleus accounts for most of an atom's mass and is an extremely dense central core within the atom

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43

isotope

an element can have different types of atoms that have different masses but are chemically indistinguishable in ordinary chemical process. atoms of the same element differing in mass. have the same number of protons and electrons, but different neutrons.

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44

protons

positively charged particles found in the nucleus

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45

neutrons

electronically neutral particles in the nucleus. slightly larger than protons

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46

electrons

negatively charged particles distributed around the nucleus

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47

atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus

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48

mass number

total number of protons and neutrons

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49

atomic mass

the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu)

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50

molecule

a combination of at least two atoms in a specific arrangement held together by chemical forces; may be an element or a compound

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51

Law of Definite Proportions

different samples of a given compound always contains the same elements in the same ratio

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52

molecular formula

shows the exact number of atoms of each element in a molecule

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53

structural formula

shows not only the elemental composition, but also the general arrangements

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54

empirical formula

the lowest whole-number ratio of elements

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55

polyatomic ions

consists of a combination of two or more atoms

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56

oxoanions

polyatomic anions that contain one or more oxygen atoms and one atom (the "central atom") of another element

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57

acid

a substance that produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water

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58

oxoacids

when dissolved in water, produce hydrogen ions and the corresponding oxoanions; can be monoprotic (one ionizable hydrogen) or polyprotic (more than one ionizable hydrogen)

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59

hydrate

a compound that has a specific number of water molecules within its solid structure

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60

anhydrous

the compound no longer has water molecules associated with it

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61

formula mass

the sum of the average atomic masses in atomic mass units (amu) of all the atoms represented in the substance formula

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62

formula mass of a molecular compound

the average mass of an individual molecule in atomic mass units (amu); also called molecular mass and molecular weight

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63

mole

defined as the amount of a substance that contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12

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64

molar mass

the mass in grams of one mole of the substance

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65

percent composition by mass

a list of the percent by mass of each element in a compound; percent mass of an element= natomic mass of an element/molecular or formula mass of a compund100%

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66

molarity

the number of moles of solute per liter of solution L=mol/M, mol=M*L

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67

dilution

M1L1=M2L2; the process of preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated one

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68

serial dilution

C1V1=C2V2

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69

Group 1 elements

alkali metals; Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr

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70

Group 2 elements

alkaline earth metals; Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra

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71

Group 15 elements

pnictogens; N, P, As, Sb, Pi, Mc

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72

Group 16 elements

chalcogens; O, S, Se, Te, Po

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73

Group 17 elements

halogens; F, Cl, Br, I, At

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74

Group 18 elements

noble gases; He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn

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75

Groups 3-12 elements

Transition elements

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