Evolution of Health and Disease - Exam 1

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Tags and Description

113 Terms

1

science

system of obtaining knowledge in the form of testable theories and hypotheses with aim of explaining/predicting natural phenomena

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goal of science

describe our world and understand the causes of our observations

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what questions

description/identity (____ is this thing)

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why questions

cause/explanation (____ this happens)

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how questions

function/quantity (___ this thing works)

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fact

observation that's been repeatedly confirmed

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hypothesis

tentative statement about natural world, leading to deductions that can be tested

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theory

well-established explanation of natural world that is based on tested hypotheses (why question)

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law

statements based on repeated experiments/observations, that describe/predict a range of natural phenomenon (how or why question)

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Scientific method

  1. observation/question

  2. research topic area

  3. form hypothesis

  4. test with experiment

  5. analyze data

  6. report conclusion

  7. repeat

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deductive reasoning

consider set of hypotheses and draw logical conclusion from them (general --> specific) A is B, and B is C, so A is C

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problems with deduction

  • unable to verify the premises

  • falsehoods can be concluded

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inductive reasoning

aim for broad generalizations based off specific observations; using available data to draw best conclusion possible (specific --> general)

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problems with inductive reasoning

  • even if premises are true, conclusion might not be

  • particular doesn't extend to general

  • biases on data collection

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abductive reasoning

based on limited/incomplete info; looks for most likely explanation for data, given previous knowledge

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problems with abductive reasoning

no guarantee that the explanation is T or F

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logical empiricism: hypothetico-deductive method

  1. hypothesis formed by inductive reasoning (observe and hypothesize)

  2. test hypothesis by validating/falsifying the deductions made from hypothesis

  3. if hypothesis is true, so are deductions. so test deductions with experiments/observations

  4. deductions false = hypothesis wrong

  5. deduction true = hypothesis might be true, test again with new deductions

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testable and falsifiable

for statements to be scientific, they must be ___

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19

bias

any factor that might influence data collection or interpretation, conferring disproportional weight to one of many possible interpretations

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where does bias come from?

context personal beliefs preconceptions biased information sources

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how peer assessment can check our biases

our biases are more evident to colleague than to ourselves

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confirmation bias

tendency to seek out and use info that confirms our views and expectations

  • can lead to false or suboptimal conclusions

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error

difference between observed/measured values and true info in nature (the +/- at end of number)

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accuracy

trueness of an answer, how close to true value you are

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precision

refers to spread of values, how close to each other your measures are

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PRECISION

most important characteristic of a scientific answer -- repeatability and falsifiability

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systematic error

  • affects accuracy

  • caused by instrumental/ methodological or personal mistakes

  • corrected by perfecting methods / techniques

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random error

  • affects precision

  • happens by chance/ uncontrollable fluctuations

  • can't be eliminated but can be quantified with statistics

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standard deviation

statistical treatment that lets you access the normal distribution of data (capital Sx on calc)

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normal distribution

silly little bell curve 68.3% of data in 1SD 95.4% of data in 2SD 99.7% of data in 3SD

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file drawer effect / publication bias

  • scientists often don't publish studies that don't have statistically significant results

  • scientists waste money doing experiments that are already proven false

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recall bias

  • responses to surveys or self-reporting about experiences biased by individuals' lives

  • data skewed bc certain ppl remember things better

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citation bias

  • bias towards familiar sources

  • citations of only favorite journals = confirmation bias

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sampling bias

  • when not all members of population have an equal chance of being selected for a sample (ie non-response, undercoverage, voluntary response, recall)

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selection bias

when researchers influence data collection by collecting data to fit hypothesis (not randomly)

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observation

what you experience with senses (data, facts)

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inferences

conclusions you can make with past knowledge (hypothesis, educated guess)

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darwin-wallace theory of evolution by natural selection

  1. resources are scare = individuals compete

  2. some individuals have better traits = better at securing resources

  3. those individuals have more reproductive successful = pass down good traits

  4. over time, entire population will be descendants with good traits

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39

Experimental Design

aims to create a proper scientific experiment steps:

  1. question

  2. planning experiment - variable

  3. collect data

  4. analyze results

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Mendel's experiments

  • common garden pea as model organism (bc great variety, numbers, convenience, easy to cross)

  • cross pollinates 2 true breeds (P1) for same trait, obtaining F1 gen

  • self the F1 to obtain F2

  • reciprocal crossing (repeat the crossing with different pollen donor)

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model organism

non-human organism used to better understand biological processes

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selfing

self pollinate

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variables

factors in experiment that can influence results. must be quantifiable or measurable

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independent variable

changed in experiment

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dependent variable

responds to IV

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controlled variable

held constant

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conditions

different number of treatments you'll do

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control

a treatment you know the results of beforehand

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49

true breed strains

strains that display the same characteristics for generations

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50

3:1 (dominant to recessive)

monohybrid or one-factor crossing

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9:3:3:1 (both dominant to one dominant to other dominant to both recessive)

dihybrid or two-factor crossing

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Mendel's Laws of Inheritance

  1. law of segregation - each gamete carries only one factor for a trait

  2. law of independent assortment - factors for different traits are independently passed through the gamete

  3. law of dominance - some traits stronger (dominant) and some traits weaker (recessive)

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gene

"factors of inheritance," part of DNA that codes for a specific characteristic

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alleles

variations of genes (T or t)

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phenotype

physical expression of a gene (purple flower or white flower)

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genotype

the genetic code for a trait

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homozygous dominant

TT

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homozygous recessive

tt

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Heterozygous

Tt or tT

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evolution

any process of formation of growth and development (basically just change)

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biological evolution

change in population properties over generations

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survival of the fittest

  • resources are scarce = individuals compete

  • some individuals have better traits = secure resources better

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sexual selection

  • individuals with better traits have more reproductive success

  • pass traits to offspring

  • with time, descendant will be entire population

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species evolve

genetic information must change from one generation to the next, so ______, not organisms

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population

all members of a species in the same area (smallest level of evo)

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genetic variation

individuals in pop dont have exact same genes

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population genetics

investigate the change of genetic composition of a population over time

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gene pool

sum of all genetic material from all individuals in pop

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Evolution at molecular scale

change in gene pool composition or frequency over time

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frequency

relative proportions of genetic variation in gene pool

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genotype frequency

homozygous dom = pp = p^2 heterozygous = 2pq homozygous recessive = qq = q^2

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phenotype frequency

dominant frequency = p^2 + 2pq recessive frequency = q^2

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allele frequency

p = frequency of dominant allele q = frequency of recessive allele p = 1 - q q = 1 - p

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Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

  • under certain ideal conditions, allele frequencies will remain constant from generation to generation in sexually reproducing populations p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1

  • if no active processes of evo, use this to predict population genetics

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75

P(A) + P(B) - P(A and B)

"either/or"

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P(A) * P(B)

"and"

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process

mechanisms a set of events that will lead to a given recognizable result

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patterns

set of recognizable results caused by identifiable pattern

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5 processes of evolution

  1. mutation

  2. gene drift

  3. genetic flow

  4. non-random mating

  5. natural selection

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80

autosome

non-sex inherited gene

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allosome

sex-inherited gene

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natural selection

  • Darwin-Wallace theory AGAIN

  • conditions needed: variation in a trait, variation in reproductive success, correlation between trait and reproductive success, trait is heritable

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non-random mating

the goal of species is to leave their genes in the next generation, so individuals must pick the best partner possible to increase likelihood of offspring success

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Dissassortative mating

individuals mate more often with individuals of different phenotype

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assortative mating

individuals mate more often with individuals of a similar phenotype

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inbreeding

extreme case of assortative mating when individuals mate with close genetic relatives

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inbreeding depression

inbreeding increase frequency of homozygous recessive traits that may be bad. population survivability decreases as harmful recessive phenotypes increase

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mutations

any alteration in genetic structure of organism

  • spontaneous and random (can happen at any time and is unpredictable)

  • natural selection determines if good or bad

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89

gene flow/migration

  • movement of existing genes from one pop to another

  • alters genotype and allelic frequency of pop

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factors affecting gene flow

  • mobility (can organism or gametes move)

  • territoriality (does species stay is same area)

  • nature of environment (physical barriers)

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effects of gene flow on pop

  • adds variety to gene pool

  • increase/ decrease survivability of pop by increasing spread of good/bad alleles

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gene drift

  • alleles change in frequency due to chance events (random and unbiased)

  • more impactful in small populations

  • random walk process bc no discernable pattern

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bottleneck effect

small number of individuals survive at random

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founder effect

few individuals become isolated and settle in area without previous population

  • the only alleles in new pop are those brought by founders

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tension between drift and flow

drift causes pops to diverge by removing alleles flow prevents divergence by introducing new alleles

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adaptive evolution

increase in frequency on beneficial alleles and decrease in deleterious alleles due to selection

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cline

gradual geographic variation across an ecological gradient

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diversifying selection

selection that favors 2+ distinct phenotypes

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evolutionary fitness

individual's ability to survive and reproduce

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frequency-dependent selection

selection that favors phenotypes that are either common (positive frequency-dependent selection) or rare (negative frequency-dependent selection)

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