Ancient World History Module 1

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58 Terms

1

B.C.

Before Christ

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B.C.E

Before Common Era

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A.D.

Anno Domini, "in the year of the Lord"

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4

C.E

Common Era or Christian Era

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5

B.C.E. or B.C

as history passes we count backward to get closer to the present

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6

A.D. and C.E.

we count forward/up to get closer to the present.

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7

Archaeology

the study of past people and cultures through what they have left behind. Archaeologists dig up artifacts of early people

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8

Anthropology

he studies of humans – both past and present

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9

hominid

a primate of the family Hominidae

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10

Paleolithic Age

Means “Old Stone Age"

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11

Paleolithic Age

Period of history between 2.5 million B.C. and 10,000 B.C. in which humans used simple stone tools

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12

Paleolithic Age

Digging sticks, axes, and spears made of bone, wood and stone

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13

Paleolithic Age

Hunted and gathered

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14

Paleolithic Age

Lived in small bands of 20 or 30 people

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15

nomadic people

The moved from place to place following vegetation cycles and animal migration

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Paleolithic Age

There was rough equality between men and women – both were responsible for finding food

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Paleolithic Age

Usually, men hunted and women gathered so they could take care of the children

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18

Paleolithic Age

Housing consisted of caves or structures made of animal bones and hides

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19

Paleolithic Age

A spoken language developed at some point allowing for communication

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20

Paleolithic Age

The making of tools and the use of fire were the two most important technological inventions of the Paleolithic Age

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21

Animism

a belief that spirits inhabit plants, animals, or other natural objects – part of the religious beliefs of Paleo peoples

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22

Paleolithic Age

they believed in Animism

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23

Neolithic Age

Occurred from 8,000 B.C. to 4,000 B.C.

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24

Neolithic Age

“New Stone Age”

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25

Neolithic Age

During this period there was a shift from hunting and gathering to keeping animals and growing food – This event is called the Neolithic Revolution

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Neolithic Age

The Neolithic revolution can be considered the greatest achievement in human history

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27

Neolithic Age

It gave humans a regular food supply, giving them greater control of the environment and allowing them to give up nomadic ways to settle in communities

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28

Neolithic Age

The transition to systematic agriculture was a slow process that took thousands of years

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29

Neolithic Age

Surpluses in food allowed for some people to be involved in activities other than farming

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30

Artisans

craftspeople who traded for their food

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31

Neolithic Age

had Artisans

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32

Neolithic Age

When food was scarce warfare between Neolithic villages increased

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33

Neolithic Age

Villages were likely led by a council of elders or a chief

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34

Neolithic Age

More personal property was accumulated by settled people and differences in wealth emerged

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35

Neolithic Age

People specialized in making products such as pots, baskets, and clothes

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36

Neolithic Age

Men began to dominate the relationship with women because of the importance of gathering had diminished

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37

Homo Habilis

2.4 million-1.5 million BC; Known as the “handyman” because they could use larger and more varied tools, Flourished about 2 million years ago, Could use their tools for cutting, scraping, chopping, or sawing plants, animals, and wood

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38

Homo Erectus

1.9 million-50,000 BC; Flourished 1.5 million years ago, they were fully upright walkers, They were notable for having larger brains, and They were the first to leave Africa for the colder the climate of Europe because they could use fire

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39

Homo Sapiens

Developed around 250,000 years ago – “wise human beings”, Around 100,000 years ago they developed in two groups

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40

Neanderthals

200,000-30,000 BC; homo sapiens lived in the Neander Valley in Germany, were Believed to be the first hominids to bury their dead, indicating the belief in an afterlife, Made clothing from the skins of animals, and Disappeared mysteriously around 30,000 years ago

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41

cro-magnon

40,000 to 8000 BC; a hominid of a tall erect race of the Upper Paleolithic; were robustly built and powerful and are presumed to have been about 166 to 171 cm (about 5 feet 5 inches to 5 feet 7 inches) tall. The body was generally heavy and solid, apparently with strong musculature. The forehead was straight, with slight browridges, and the face short and wide.

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42

slash and burn farming

growing food in which wild or forested land is clear cut and any remaining vegetation burned leaves the soil fertile for better crops, started in the Neolithic Revolution

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43

domestication of animals

the process of adapting wild plants and animals for human use helped make getting food easier; animals were less violent, trained horses and donkeys which were used for travel, helped to carry things, helped with farming to till the soil

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44

what people ate, clothing/adornment, sports, tools/technology, social customs, work

What were common practices for components of culture (at least 3)

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45

language, symbols, religious beliefs, values, the arts, political beliefs

What were shared understandings for components of culture (at least 3)

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family, class/caste structure, relationships between individuals and community, government, economic system, view of authority

What were social organization for components of culture (at least 3)

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47

invented spears, clubs, traps, bows, and arrows to hunt food, invented fire to cook food and provide warmth, used technology - flint and hard stones, axes, spears, made fish hooks and needles from animal bone

What were the major achievements in human history during the Old Stone Age?

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48

The discovery was very important because it helped the hominids survive and helped the Neolithic Agriculture Revolution. The fire was made with flint and hard stones. The fire was used to cook food which warded off bacteria from raw meat. This helped them not contract the disease from raw meat. It was protection from predators (mainly at night). The predators would stay away from their tint villages because fire to the animals meant harm to themselves. It provided a source of warmth and light. The fire helped them keep warm in the winter and not freeze to death; it kept their body temperature regulated. The lighting helped them to see things at night. They could travel/hunt at night and ,light could help them do many things they could also do in the day

Why is the discovery of fire so important?

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49

The planting of seeds was the most significant to the development of agriculture. It helped with the discovery of the Neolithic Agriculture Revolution; planting seeds was just the begging of farming. It was discovered when women were done gathering and eating the fruit and would throw the seeds into the grass. When the season would come for them to grow again, the women would realize they grew more fruit plants. It increased the surplus of food in the villages. The more fruit/vegetable plants they had, the more they could feed the 20-30 people in the village. The surplus of food increased population growth because if they had a surplus of food, more people would have kids because they had enough food to feed them. This would cause for the village to grow and develop and eventually become a civilization. It also changed gender systems in villages because the women discovered it. The discovery showed the men that women could do just as important things as them. WIth these examples, this shows how planting seeds was the most significant to the development of agriculture.

Which effect of the development of agriculture is most significant?

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50

They improved their lives with many advances. They domesticated animals (it was easier to get food because the animals wouldn't fight back, trained horses to travel, till the soil, and help carry things), discovered the farming revolution (made advancements to agriculture, planting seeds, slash/burn method), and used metals (copper/bronze) to create stronger tools (easier to hunt/kill animals for more food), used plant fibers for clothes (helped them become warm in the winter and cooler in the summer), and started to build shelters (helped protect them from rain, the sun, and preadtaors)

In what ways did Neolithic peoples dramatically improve their lives and living conditions?

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51

The most significant consequence was how domesticating animals caused bacteria. When domesticating animals they relied on food surpluses. They wanted to get as much as they could to stay fed and not starve so they start to not care about the quality of the meat. This would cause the meat to have harmful bacteria and disease; this could cause it to spread and cause people in the village to die.

What were the most significant consequences of the Agricultural Revolution?

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52

Hominids' ability to walk upright was very important because it helped them live their lives. It helped them hunt easier (walking upright can help them run faster and use weapons more effectively to catch animals), and it helped them migrate (walking upright would help them move easier when they needed to migrate because of the harsh climate and temperature). opposable thumbs were also very important because it was useful to carry weapons (carrying weapons helped them get their food supplies and make their village grow and develop), and helped them make important advances like stone tools and fire. We use opposable every single day for doing everything with our hands (holding a pencil)

Why did the ability to walk upright and the development of the opposable thumb represent important breakthroughs for early hominids?

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53

They were similar because they both were advancements in history, consisting of using animals and plants for food, they also used similar tools. Paleolithic Culture was less advanced than the Neolithic. They hunted (men) and gathered (women) to obtain their food source. They ate animals, fish, insects, nuts, berries, and plants. They used wooden and stone tools to trap animals by constantly moving. (spears, clubs, and arrows). They used fire to help cook food, keep predators away, and stay warm. Their art consisted of cave paintings and used rocks to make paint. Neolithic Culture was more advanced than the Paleolithic but learned from them. They domesticated animals for their food source so they didn't have to constantly move. They ate grains and vegetables. They use metal tools. Their arts included of pottery from clay, and plant fibers for mats and fiber. craved objects out of wood, and built shelters

Compare and contrast the Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages/cultures.

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54

Specialization had the most impact on daily life. Specialization helped the development of different jobs that were important. Having farmers and doctors was crucial back then because farmers helped with their food source (meat and plants) and doctors helped them with injuries from hunting and medicine from infected meat. Just like today doctors are VERY crucial in today's society because they helped with medicine, injuries, and surgeries, and keep our bodies healthy and alive. Specialization also helped created many more essential jobs like police officers and fire fighters.

Which technology of the New Stone Age had the greatest impact on daily life?

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55

They migrated because of the climate. They would migrate to places with a warmer or cooler climate depending on what they were looking for. They are also looking for places where food grew in abundance. They would look for fertile soil and lots of lands to plant crops.

Why did early humans migrate the way they did?

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56

carbon dating (the determination of the age or date of organic matter) helps scientists understand history. The impacts helped them discovery many of the cultures like The Paolith. and Neolith. cultures. It discovered how they lived, what they invented, and how they developed into what we are today. Understanding culture is important because it tells us why people did the things they did.

What impacts has carbon dating had on our understanding of prehistory?

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57

Many civilizations emerged near rivers for many purposes it had. It was a source of drinking water. Water is essential for the human body so having a source near you would be significant. They also used rivers when they flooded. When the rivers flooded it would make the soil moist for an abundance of crops. They could also make irrigation systems when the rivers didn't flood to make the crops mosit.

Why did early civilizations emerge near rivers?

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58

Migration, the growth of population, . Migration introduces people to new areas and climates making people want to settle where natural resources are abundant. When people from a village found an area where resources were abundant they would start building a civilization because it would growth of the population. Civilization needs a population to grow so it can have people for certain jobs and it helps it grow. It helps with the economic aspect because some people would take up a job involiving it and it would lead them to develop their econmy. Cities rose because of these developments. When villages had a strong structure they could start building cities that involved industrialization.

What economic and social changes allowed cities to emerge and grow/arise?

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