Patho Test 1

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Genetics

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112 Terms

1

Genetics

The study of individual genes and their impact on inheritance and single-gene and chromosomal disorders.

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2

Genomics

The study of the function of sets or groups of genes. Generally, focuses on examining the genome of an individual cell.

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3

Evidence-Based Practice

The conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in patient care decision making; includes integrating clinical expertise with consideration paid to the patient’s values and preferences.

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4

Acute

a disease that appears quickly and heals quickly

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5

Chronic

has an enduring quality with lasting implications

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6

Signs

objective indication of a disease that is observable Ex: rash

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7

Symptom

subjective sensation indicative of disease that is perceived by the affected individual Ex: pain and nausea

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8

Pathogenesis

The sequence of events in response to one or more etiologic agents involving structural and/or functional alterations in cells, tissues, or organs that result in disease.

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9

Etiology

The cause of a disease or injury.

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10

Exacerbation

An increase in the severity or intensity of a disease.

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11

Remission

A reduction or abatement of disease over a particular period of time.

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12

Morbidity

A departure from physiologic or psychologic well-being, encompassing disease, injury, and disability.

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13

Mortality

The number of deaths in a given population.

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14

Public Health

The science of protecting and improving the health of families and communities through promotion of healthy lifestyles, research for disease and injury prevention, and detection and control of infectious diseases

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15

Prevalence

The number of people in a specific population who have a certain disease or condition at a point in time or during a period of time

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16

Incidence

The number of new cases of a disease or condition that occur during a specified period of time in a population that is at risk for developing the disease or condition.

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17

Health

A state of normative physiologic or psychologic function.

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18

Syndrome

A collection of symptoms associated with particular disease

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19

Illness

The presence of a disease or other disruption of normative function.

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20

Disease

An impairment of some functional ability that results in the appearance of symptoms.

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21

Disorder

A synonym for disease, more commonly used in relation to psychologic health; can refer to lasting physiologic consequences resulting from a disease.

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22

Modifiable Risk Factors

A risk factor that the individual can change, such as diet or smoking.

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23

Non-modifiable Risk Factors

A risk factor that an individual cannot change, such as age, race, and genetic variables.

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24

Phases of Cell Division

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telephase

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25

Meiosis

A cell division process that produces four haploid daughter cells (egg and sperm) needed for reproduction.

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Mitosis

The process of cell division used to create identical copies of a cell.

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27

DNA Replication

The process whereby double-stranded DNA copies itself, resulting in two double-stranded DNA molecules.

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Transcription

The process whereby double-stranded DNA copies itself, resulting in two double-stranded DNA molecules.

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29

Translation

The conversion of messenger RNA into a series of amino acids, which are then used to synthesize a protein product.

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30

Mutations

A permanent alteration in the DNA sequence of a gene that adversely affects gene function

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31

Karyotyping

A test used to examine the visual appearance of chromosome structure and number.

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32

FISH

A test using fluorescent probes to detect chromosome number and target specific DNA sequences on chromosomes.

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33

Single-Gene testing

designed to detect nucleotide changes anywhere in the gene

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34

allelle

Alternative forms of an individual gene

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35

Autosomal Dominant

indicates that only one copy of a mutated gene is required to cause disease

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36

autosomal recessive

Indicates that both copies of a gene must not be working to express the trait

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37

nondisjunction

improper separation of chromosomes resulting in the egg or sperm having and incorrect number of chromosomes

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38

Translocation

The occurrence when a piece of one chromosome breaks off and fuses to another chromosome.

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39

Atrophy

o Reversible o Reduction in cell size o Result of:  Insufficient blood flow (heart attack, stroke)  Malnutrition  Reduced endocrine stimulation o Decreases energy levels

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40

Hypertrophy

o Enlargement of cells due to increase workload (heart failure, inflammation) o Results from:  Normal physiologic conditions  Abnormal physiologic conditions o Need more energy to keep enlarged cells running

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41

Hyperplasia

o Increase in the number of cells o Result of:  Increased workload  Hormonal stimulation  Decreased tissue due to injury o Overcrowding of cells leads to decrease in functioning (hypoxic)

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42

Metaplasia

o Replacement on one adult cell with another adult cell o Can better endue the change or stress o Results from:  Chronic inflammation (asthma, COPD)

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43

Dysplasia

o Derange cell growth leads to abnormal size, shape, and appearance o Cancers o Are adaptive and potentially reversible

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44

Individual Environmental Health

social and physical environment are key determinants of an individuals’ health  Social – gender, education, employment, social networks, and interpersonal interactions  Physical – places where people live, work, and play

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45

Community health

social environment includes neighborhood and community factors such as social networks and resources as well as the level of shared commitment toward and respect for the values and rights of others. Also includes the general level of wealth and the availability and accessibility of goods and services

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46

Nature of Hazard

Biological - microorganisms, parasites, allergens and toxins chemical - inorganic and organic physical - transfer of energy psychosocial - stressors resulting from human interaction with the social environment

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transport media

The means through which environmental hazards are transported to people, including via air, soil, water, and food.

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48

Route of Exposure

The route by which a contaminant contacts or enters the human body, which can be through inhalation, ingestion, dermal absorption, or transplacentally.

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49

By setting

hazard exposures occur are the home, workplace, school, and community

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50

by outcomes

Hazards are also classified according to their _____ , such as mutagen, teratogen, or carcinogen, or by the organ system that is adversely affected (e.g. cardiotoxicant, neurotoxicant).

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51

epidemiology

A field of study that investigates the occurrence and patterns of health and disease.

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52

Protective factors

Factors that decrease the risk of disease or injury.

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53

Surveillance

An important public health function in which health data on populations are systematically collected, analyzed, and interpreted on an ongoing basis and used to design and implement interventions to prevent and control health problems.

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54

Sentinel Health effects

An event that heralds an environmental health problem not just for an individual, but also potentially for others in the home, work, and community environments.

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55

Vulnerability

The diminished capacity of an individual or a population to withstand adverse health risks from environmental exposures based on several factors including: differential exposure, the interrelated factors of preparedness and ability to recover, and susceptibility

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56

Susceptibility

A key vulnerability factor that denotes characteristics including age, gender, race/ethnicity, stage of development, and genetic predisposition that increase the risk of individuals for environmental disease or injury.

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57

Toxicology

the study of the harmful effects of xenobiotics or exogenous chemical agents

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58

Inflammation

The immune response of tissues to bodily injury (e.g., trauma, heat, radiation, chemicals) or foreign substances such as infectious agents or allergic antigens. may be acute or chronic.

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59

Goals of Inflammation

o Eliminate the initial cause of injury o Remove dead cells o Begin the process of tissue repair

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60

innate immunity

occurs naturally and is the body’s first line of defense against an injury or foreign substance.

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61

CRP

  • A protein found in plasma that increases in response to inflammation.

  • Measuring changes in _____ over time can be helpful in monitoring disease progression or response to treatment.

  • The normal value is <10 mg/L

  • any value >10 is abnormal

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62

Acquired Immunity

  • a form of immunity that is continually refined throughout the life of the individual and is highly specific to a pathogen.

  • allows an individual, once exposed to a pathogen, to have long-lasting protection against that particular pathogen.

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63

Bands

Immature WBC

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64

Shift to the left

An increased level of immature neutrophils in the circulation.

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65

4,000 to 11,000

Normal WBC count

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66

Redness, heat, swelling, pain

Cardinal Signs of Inflammation

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67

margination

When the WBC line the vessel to start killing the antigen that comes in

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68

Lymphocytes

consist of T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells (NK cells)

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69

granulocytes

consist of neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils/mast cells

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70

monocytes

include monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells

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71

natural killer cells

Can kill tumor cells and cells infected by viruses without prior exposure to the antigen

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72

CD4 surface protein

T-helper cell; produces cytokines

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73

CD8 surface protein

cytotoxic T cell; recognizes specific antigens and kills them (suppressor cell)

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74

B cells

Responsible for acquired immunity

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75

Neutrophils

Most common type of WBC; 60-70% Typically the first responders to an infection or injury Major component of pus related to acute inflammation Phagocytose bacteria and generate oxygen (hydrogen peroxide) and nitric oxide to kill pathogens Immature cells (band cells) released during severe acute infection

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76

Eosinophils

4% of all leukocytes Defends against parasitic infections Responds to allergic reactions

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77

Basophils

Make up 1% of all leukocytes Release histamine and other vasoactive amines in response to infection, injury, or allergic reaction Involved in wound healing and chronic inflammation

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78

Monocytes

Develop from bone marrow stem cells Immature macrophages or dendritic cells 6% of circulating leukocytes with macrophages Irregularly shaped and target bacteria, viruses, and debris

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79

Macrophages

Develop from bone marrow stem cells Large and irregularly shaped with large bean-shaped nucleus Cell surface covered with receptor proteins, allowing them to locate antigens coated by antibodies

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80

Dendritic Cells

Antigen-presenting cells Found in tissue that has contact with the external environment Processes antigen material and presents it on the cell surface to the T cells, helping to shape the adaptive immune response.

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81

2.0 - 7.0 x 10^9 40-80%

Normal range for neutrophils

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82

1.0-3.0 x 10^9 20-40%

Normal range for lymphocytes

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83

.2-1.0 x 10^9 2-10%

Normal range for monocytes

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84

.02-.5 x 10^9 1-6%

Normal range for eosinophils

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85

.02-.1 x 10^9 <1-2%

Normal range for basophils

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86

prostaglandin

responsible for vasodilation = pain

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87

serous inflammation

o Fluid that does not contain many cells o Results from tissue injury o Contains proteins o Not sever o Ex: blister formed by a burn

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88

fibrinous inflammation

results from increased vascular permeability, allowing large proteins to leak out of vessels into tissues

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89

purulent inflammation

formation of pus containing many neutrophils, cellular debris, and edema fluid ex: appendicitis

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90

ulceration

: results from very severe inflammation o Caused by necrosis of cells and sloughing of necrotic tissue

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91

Resolution of inflammation

Healing of the tissue No permanent destruction Example: recovery from the common cold

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92

fibrosis formation

Scarring from significant tissue damage Epithelial cells are replaced by fibroblasts May impair physical function Example: myocardial infarction

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93

abscess formation

Usually caused by bacteria Cavity that contains pus

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94

chronic inflammation

May occur if acute inflammation is not resolved

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95

chronic inflammation causes

o Prolonged acute information o Autoimmune o Prolonged exposure to an irritant

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96

acute inflammation

increased neutrophils =

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97

chronic inflammation

increased monocytes =

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98

allergic reaction

increased eosinophils =

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99

SIRS

is a severe systemic response to inflammation
When due to infection, it is considered sepsis
Other causes may be pulmonary embolism, anaphylaxis, and adrenal insufficiency
May lead to shock and multiple organ failure
Two of the following criteria must be met to diagnose:
Body temperature
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100

Purple

gram positive

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