Chemistry Chapter 4 Definitions

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Element Symbol

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28 Terms
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Element Symbol

a letter code for an element that is usually one to two letters long

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Law of Constant Composition

a given compound always contains elements in exactly the same proportion by mass

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Dalton's Atomic Theory

a theory established by John Dalton in the early 1800s, used to explain the nature of materials

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Atom

the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element

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Compound

a substance made of two or more different elements joined together in a specific way

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Chemical Formula

a representation of a molecule in which the symbols for the elements are used to indicate the types of atoms present, and subscripts are used to show the relative numbers of atoms

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Electron

negatively charged subatomic particles

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Nucleus

the relatively small and dense center of positive charge in an atom

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Proton

a positively charged subatomic particle located in the atomic nucleus

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Neutron

a subatomic particle in the atomic nucleus with no charge

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Isotope

atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons

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Atomic Number

the number of protons in the nucleus of a given atom

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Mass Number

the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of a given atom

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Periodic Table

a chart showing all the elements arranged in columns in such a way that all the elements in a given column exhibit similar chemical properties

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Group

vertical columns of elements on the periodic table

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Alkali Metal

group 1A metals

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Alkaline Earth Metals

group 2A metals

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Halogen

group 7A metals

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Noble Gas

group 8A metals

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Transition Metal

several series of elements in which inner orbitals ( or orbitals) are being filled

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Metal

???

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Non Metal

an element that does not exhibit metallic characteristics; chemically, a typical nonmetal accepts electrons from a metal

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Metalloid

elements that have both metallic and nonmetallic properties

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Law of Conservation of Mass

mass is neither created nor destroyed

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Ion

an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge

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Cation

a positively charged ion

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Anion

a negatively charged ion

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Ionic Compound

a compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal to form cations and anion

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