AP Biology - Unit 3 (copy)

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ATP

<p>(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work</p>

(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work

<p>(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work</p>
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ADP

<p>adenosine diphosphate; molecule that ATP becomes when it gives up one of its three phosphate groups</p>

adenosine diphosphate; molecule that ATP becomes when it gives up one of its three phosphate groups

<p>adenosine diphosphate; molecule that ATP becomes when it gives up one of its three phosphate groups</p>
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free energy

<p>Chemical energy available to do work</p>

Chemical energy available to do work

<p>Chemical energy available to do work</p>
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substrate level phosphorylation

<p>the enzyme-mediated direct transfer of phosphate from another molecule (the substrate) to ADP</p>

the enzyme-mediated direct transfer of phosphate from another molecule (the substrate) to ADP

<p>the enzyme-mediated direct transfer of phosphate from another molecule (the substrate) to ADP</p>
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reduction

<p>Gain of electrons by a chemical reactant; any reduction is accompanied by an oxidation.</p>

Gain of electrons by a chemical reactant; any reduction is accompanied by an oxidation.

<p>Gain of electrons by a chemical reactant; any reduction is accompanied by an oxidation.</p>
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oxidation

<p>Relative loss of electrons in a chemical reaction; either outright removal to form an ion, or the sharing of electrons with substances having a greater affinity for them, such as oxygen. Most oxidations, including biological ones, are associated with the liberation of energy.</p>

Relative loss of electrons in a chemical reaction; either outright removal to form an ion, or the sharing of electrons with substances having a greater affinity for them, such as oxygen. Most oxidations, including biological ones, are associated with the liberation of energy.

<p>Relative loss of electrons in a chemical reaction; either outright removal to form an ion, or the sharing of electrons with substances having a greater affinity for them, such as oxygen. Most oxidations, including biological ones, are associated with the liberation of energy.</p>
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oxidized

<p>loses electrons</p>

loses electrons

<p>loses electrons</p>
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reduced

<p>gains electrons</p>

gains electrons

<p>gains electrons</p>
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NAD

<p>nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide - a coenzyme that is an electron carrier; NAD+ is oxidized, NADH is reduced</p>

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide - a coenzyme that is an electron carrier; NAD+ is oxidized, NADH is reduced

<p>nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide - a coenzyme that is an electron carrier; NAD+ is oxidized, NADH is reduced</p>
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reducing agent

<p>compound that loses electrons in a reaction</p>

compound that loses electrons in a reaction

<p>compound that loses electrons in a reaction</p>
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oxidizing agent

<p>compound that gains electrons in a reaction</p>

compound that gains electrons in a reaction

<p>compound that gains electrons in a reaction</p>
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cellular respiration

<p>The catabolic pathways by which electrons are removed from various molecules and passed through intermediate electron carriers to O2, generating H2O and releasing energy.</p>

The catabolic pathways by which electrons are removed from various molecules and passed through intermediate electron carriers to O2, generating H2O and releasing energy.

<p>The catabolic pathways by which electrons are removed from various molecules and passed through intermediate electron carriers to O2, generating H2O and releasing energy.</p>
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aerobic

<p>Requiring molecular oxygen, O2</p>

Requiring molecular oxygen, O2

<p>Requiring molecular oxygen, O2</p>
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pyruvate oxidation

<p>pyruvate molecules are oxidized and produces acetyl-CoA, CO2, and NADH</p>

pyruvate molecules are oxidized and produces acetyl-CoA, CO2, and NADH

<p>pyruvate molecules are oxidized and produces acetyl-CoA, CO2, and NADH</p>
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citric acid cycle

<p>In cellular respiration, a set of chemical reactions whereby acetyl CoA is oxidized to carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms are stored as NADH and FADH2. Also called the Krebs cycle.</p>

In cellular respiration, a set of chemical reactions whereby acetyl CoA is oxidized to carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms are stored as NADH and FADH2. Also called the Krebs cycle.

<p>In cellular respiration, a set of chemical reactions whereby acetyl CoA is oxidized to carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms are stored as NADH and FADH2. Also called the Krebs cycle.</p>
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energy-investing reactions

<p>endergonic stage of glycolysis in which glucose is converted into G3P</p>

endergonic stage of glycolysis in which glucose is converted into G3P

<p>endergonic stage of glycolysis in which glucose is converted into G3P</p>
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energy-harvesting reactions

<p>exergonic stage of glycolysis in which G3P is converted into two molecules of pyruvate</p>

exergonic stage of glycolysis in which G3P is converted into two molecules of pyruvate

<p>exergonic stage of glycolysis in which G3P is converted into two molecules of pyruvate</p>
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pyruvate

<p>Three-carbon compound that forms as an end product of glycolysis.</p>

Three-carbon compound that forms as an end product of glycolysis.

<p>Three-carbon compound that forms as an end product of glycolysis.</p>
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NADH

<p>reduced electron carrier molecule formed in glycolysis</p>

reduced electron carrier molecule formed in glycolysis

<p>reduced electron carrier molecule formed in glycolysis</p>
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Krebs cycle

<p>another name for the citric acid cycle</p>

another name for the citric acid cycle

<p>another name for the citric acid cycle</p>
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acetyl CoA

<p>molecule formed from the oxidation of pyruvate</p>

molecule formed from the oxidation of pyruvate

<p>molecule formed from the oxidation of pyruvate</p>
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FADH2

<p>a reduced coenzyme similar to NADH, an electron carrier</p>

a reduced coenzyme similar to NADH, an electron carrier

<p>a reduced coenzyme similar to NADH, an electron carrier</p>
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anaerobic

<p>Occurring without the use of molecular oxygen, O2.</p>

Occurring without the use of molecular oxygen, O2.

<p>Occurring without the use of molecular oxygen, O2.</p>
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fermentation

<p>Speaking specifically about energy metabolism, the anaerobic degradation of a substance such as glucose to smaller molecules such as lactic acid or alcohol with the extraction of energy. (2) Speaking generally, metabolic processes that occur in the absence of O2.</p>

Speaking specifically about energy metabolism, the anaerobic degradation of a substance such as glucose to smaller molecules such as lactic acid or alcohol with the extraction of energy. (2) Speaking generally, metabolic processes that occur in the absence of O2.

<p>Speaking specifically about energy metabolism, the anaerobic degradation of a substance such as glucose to smaller molecules such as lactic acid or alcohol with the extraction of energy. (2) Speaking generally, metabolic processes that occur in the absence of O2.</p>
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lactic acid fermentations

<p>Anaerobic series of reactions that convert glucose to lactic acid, in some bacteria and animal cells.</p>

Anaerobic series of reactions that convert glucose to lactic acid, in some bacteria and animal cells.

<p>Anaerobic series of reactions that convert glucose to lactic acid, in some bacteria and animal cells.</p>
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alcoholic fermentation

<p>Anaerobic series of reactions that convert glucose to ethyl alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide in some plants and yeast cells.</p>

Anaerobic series of reactions that convert glucose to ethyl alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide in some plants and yeast cells.

<p>Anaerobic series of reactions that convert glucose to ethyl alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide in some plants and yeast cells.</p>
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photosynthesis

<p>photosynthesis: Metabolic processes carried out by green plants and cyanobacteria, by which visible light is trapped and the energy used to convert CO2 into organic compounds.</p>

photosynthesis: Metabolic processes carried out by green plants and cyanobacteria, by which visible light is trapped and the energy used to convert CO2 into organic compounds.

<p>photosynthesis: Metabolic processes carried out by green plants and cyanobacteria, by which visible light is trapped and the energy used to convert CO2 into organic compounds.</p>
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light reactions

<p>The initial phase of photosynthesis, in which light energy is converted into chemical energy.</p>

The initial phase of photosynthesis, in which light energy is converted into chemical energy.

<p>The initial phase of photosynthesis, in which light energy is converted into chemical energy.</p>
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pigment

<p>A substance that absorbs visible light.</p>

A substance that absorbs visible light.

<p>A substance that absorbs visible light.</p>
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chlorophyll

<p>Any of several green pigments associated with chloroplasts or with certain bacterial membranes; responsible for trapping light energy for photosynthesis.</p>

Any of several green pigments associated with chloroplasts or with certain bacterial membranes; responsible for trapping light energy for photosynthesis.

<p>Any of several green pigments associated with chloroplasts or with certain bacterial membranes; responsible for trapping light energy for photosynthesis.</p>
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absorption spectrum

<p>A graph of light absorption versus wavelength of light; shows how much light is absorbed at each wavelength.</p>

A graph of light absorption versus wavelength of light; shows how much light is absorbed at each wavelength.

<p>A graph of light absorption versus wavelength of light; shows how much light is absorbed at each wavelength.</p>
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action spectrum

<p>A graph of a biological process versus light wavelength; shows which wavelengths are involved in the process.</p>

A graph of a biological process versus light wavelength; shows which wavelengths are involved in the process.

<p>A graph of a biological process versus light wavelength; shows which wavelengths are involved in the process.</p>
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light-harvesting complex

<p>in photosynthesis, a group of different molecules that cooperate to absorb light energy and transfer it to a reaction center. Also called antenna system.</p>

in photosynthesis, a group of different molecules that cooperate to absorb light energy and transfer it to a reaction center. Also called antenna system.

<p>in photosynthesis, a group of different molecules that cooperate to absorb light energy and transfer it to a reaction center. Also called antenna system.</p>
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photosystem

<p>A light-harvesting complex in the chloroplast thylakoid composed of pigments and proteins.</p>

A light-harvesting complex in the chloroplast thylakoid composed of pigments and proteins.

<p>A light-harvesting complex in the chloroplast thylakoid composed of pigments and proteins.</p>
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cyclic electron transport

<p>in photosynthetic light reactions, the flow of electrons that produces ATP but no NADPH or O2.</p>

in photosynthetic light reactions, the flow of electrons that produces ATP but no NADPH or O2.

<p>in photosynthetic light reactions, the flow of electrons that produces ATP but no NADPH or O2.</p>
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noncyclic electron transport

<p>In photosynthesis, the flow of electrons that forms ATP, NADPH, and O2.</p>

In photosynthesis, the flow of electrons that forms ATP, NADPH, and O2.

<p>In photosynthesis, the flow of electrons that forms ATP, NADPH, and O2.</p>
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Calvin cycle

<p>a series of enzyme-assisted chemical reactions that produces a three-carbon sugar</p>

a series of enzyme-assisted chemical reactions that produces a three-carbon sugar

<p>a series of enzyme-assisted chemical reactions that produces a three-carbon sugar</p>
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autotroph

An organism that is capable of living exclusively on inorganic materials, water, and an energy source other than the chemical bonds of organic compounds. Some autotrophs (photoautotrophs) use sunlight as their energy source. Others (chemoautotrophs) use oxidation of inorganic compounds.

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heterotroph

<p>An organism that requires preformed organic molecules as sources of energy and chemical building blocks.</p>

An organism that requires preformed organic molecules as sources of energy and chemical building blocks.

<p>An organism that requires preformed organic molecules as sources of energy and chemical building blocks.</p>
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metabolism

<p>The sum of the building &amp; breaking reactions occurring in cells</p>

The sum of the building & breaking reactions occurring in cells

<p>The sum of the building &amp; breaking reactions occurring in cells</p>
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catabolic pathways

<p>Series of reactions that release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds.</p>

Series of reactions that release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds.

<p>Series of reactions that release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds.</p>
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anabolic pathways

<p>Series of reactions that consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones.</p>

Series of reactions that consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones.

<p>Series of reactions that consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones.</p>
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bioenergenetics

<p>The study of how organisms manage their energy resources.</p>

The study of how organisms manage their energy resources.

<p>The study of how organisms manage their energy resources.</p>
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kinetic energy

<p>Energy associated with relative motion of objects.</p>

Energy associated with relative motion of objects.

<p>Energy associated with relative motion of objects.</p>
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thermal energy

<p>Kinetic energy associated with the random movement of molecules or atoms. (heat)</p>

Kinetic energy associated with the random movement of molecules or atoms. (heat)

<p>Kinetic energy associated with the random movement of molecules or atoms. (heat)</p>
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potential energy

<p>Stored energy.</p>

Stored energy.

<p>Stored energy.</p>
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entropy

<p>A measure of disorder or randomness. Tends to increase in the universe.</p>

A measure of disorder or randomness. Tends to increase in the universe.

<p>A measure of disorder or randomness. Tends to increase in the universe.</p>
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free energy

<p>Measures the portion of a system&apos;s energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system, as in a living cell.</p>

Measures the portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system, as in a living cell.

<p>Measures the portion of a system&apos;s energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system, as in a living cell.</p>
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endergonic reaction

<p>Reaction that absorbs free energy from its surroundings.</p>

Reaction that absorbs free energy from its surroundings.

<p>Reaction that absorbs free energy from its surroundings.</p>
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exergonic reaction

<p>Reaction that proceeds with a net release of free energy.</p>

Reaction that proceeds with a net release of free energy.

<p>Reaction that proceeds with a net release of free energy.</p>
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catalyst

<p>A chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.</p>

A chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.

<p>A chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.</p>
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enzyme

<p>Protein that speeds up reactions. Typically end in &quot;ase&quot; (ex. Peroxidase, Lipase)</p>

Protein that speeds up reactions. Typically end in "ase" (ex. Peroxidase, Lipase)

<p>Protein that speeds up reactions. Typically end in &quot;ase&quot; (ex. Peroxidase, Lipase)</p>
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activation energy

<p>The amount of energy needed to push the reactants over an energy barrier.</p>

The amount of energy needed to push the reactants over an energy barrier.

<p>The amount of energy needed to push the reactants over an energy barrier.</p>
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enzyme-substrate complex

<p>When an enzyme binds to its substrate, it forms:</p>

When an enzyme binds to its substrate, it forms:

<p>When an enzyme binds to its substrate, it forms:</p>
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active site

<p>A pocket or groove on the surface of the enzyme where a substrate can bind.</p>

A pocket or groove on the surface of the enzyme where a substrate can bind.

<p>A pocket or groove on the surface of the enzyme where a substrate can bind.</p>
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induced fit model

<p>States that the enzyme and substrate undergo conformational changes to interact fully with one another (as opposed to &quot;Lock &amp; Key&quot;</p>

States that the enzyme and substrate undergo conformational changes to interact fully with one another (as opposed to "Lock & Key"

<p>States that the enzyme and substrate undergo conformational changes to interact fully with one another (as opposed to &quot;Lock &amp; Key&quot;</p>
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competitive inhibitors

<p>Reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active sites.</p>

Reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active sites.

<p>Reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active sites.</p>
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noncompetitive inhibitors

<p>Impede enzymatic reactions by binding to another part of the enzyme (other than the active site).</p>

Impede enzymatic reactions by binding to another part of the enzyme (other than the active site).

<p>Impede enzymatic reactions by binding to another part of the enzyme (other than the active site).</p>
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feedback inhibition/negative feedback

<p>A metabolic pathway is switched off by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme that acts early in the pathway.</p>

A metabolic pathway is switched off by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme that acts early in the pathway.

<p>A metabolic pathway is switched off by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme that acts early in the pathway.</p>
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saturated enzyme

<p>Describes an enzyme&apos;s maximum activity when every active site is being used.</p>

Describes an enzyme's maximum activity when every active site is being used.

<p>Describes an enzyme&apos;s maximum activity when every active site is being used.</p>
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Chemical Energy

Potential energy trapped in molecular bonds.

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Spontaneous Reaction

<p>When a reaction doesn&apos;t require energy to proceed it is said to be this - doesn&apos;t mean it will be FAST.</p>

When a reaction doesn't require energy to proceed it is said to be this - doesn't mean it will be FAST.

<p>When a reaction doesn&apos;t require energy to proceed it is said to be this - doesn&apos;t mean it will be FAST.</p>
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Competitive inhibition

<p>substance that resembles the normal substrate competes with the substrate for the active site</p>

substance that resembles the normal substrate competes with the substrate for the active site

<p>substance that resembles the normal substrate competes with the substrate for the active site</p>
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Noncompetitive inhibitor

<p>a chemical that binds to an enzyme but not in the active site. This chemical will change the shape of the enzyme (reversible)</p>

a chemical that binds to an enzyme but not in the active site. This chemical will change the shape of the enzyme (reversible)

<p>a chemical that binds to an enzyme but not in the active site. This chemical will change the shape of the enzyme (reversible)</p>
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substrate

<p>the substance an enzyme catalyzes, changes.</p>

the substance an enzyme catalyzes, changes.

<p>the substance an enzyme catalyzes, changes.</p>
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exothermic reaction

<p>a chemical reaction where energy is given off, so that the products have less energy than the reactants.</p>

a chemical reaction where energy is given off, so that the products have less energy than the reactants.

<p>a chemical reaction where energy is given off, so that the products have less energy than the reactants.</p>
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endothermic reaction

<p>a chemical reaction where energy is taken in, so that the products have more energy than the reactants.</p>

a chemical reaction where energy is taken in, so that the products have more energy than the reactants.

<p>a chemical reaction where energy is taken in, so that the products have more energy than the reactants.</p>
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amylase

<p>Enzyme that can break the bonds of starch to form the carbohydrate monomer, glucose.</p>

Enzyme that can break the bonds of starch to form the carbohydrate monomer, glucose.

<p>Enzyme that can break the bonds of starch to form the carbohydrate monomer, glucose.</p>
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Denature

<p>Characteristic of proteins; a change in shape that stops the protein from functioning.</p>

Characteristic of proteins; a change in shape that stops the protein from functioning.

<p>Characteristic of proteins; a change in shape that stops the protein from functioning.</p>
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Allosteric

<p>__________ regulation of enzyme occurs when a molecule binds to an enzyme changing the protein&apos;s shape</p>

__________ regulation of enzyme occurs when a molecule binds to an enzyme changing the protein's shape

<p>__________ regulation of enzyme occurs when a molecule binds to an enzyme changing the protein&apos;s shape</p>
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Catalyst

<p>______ an agent that speeds up a chemical reaction without itself being permanently altered</p>

______ an agent that speeds up a chemical reaction without itself being permanently altered

<p>______ an agent that speeds up a chemical reaction without itself being permanently altered</p>
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Transition State

<p>The less stable state that occurs and is usually a high-energy state between reactants and products in a chemical reaction</p>

The less stable state that occurs and is usually a high-energy state between reactants and products in a chemical reaction

<p>The less stable state that occurs and is usually a high-energy state between reactants and products in a chemical reaction</p>
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Substrate orientation

<p>When Enzyme bring together specific atoms into a correct position that are otherwise rotating and tumbling so that bonds can form</p>

When Enzyme bring together specific atoms into a correct position that are otherwise rotating and tumbling so that bonds can form

<p>When Enzyme bring together specific atoms into a correct position that are otherwise rotating and tumbling so that bonds can form</p>
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Protein Kinases

<p>enzymes that reversibly activate or inactivate other proteins by adding phosphate groups to (phosphorylating) them</p>

enzymes that reversibly activate or inactivate other proteins by adding phosphate groups to (phosphorylating) them

<p>enzymes that reversibly activate or inactivate other proteins by adding phosphate groups to (phosphorylating) them</p>
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Temperature

<p>After looking at the shape of graph the enzyme activity of this enzymes is being regulated by what variable:</p>

After looking at the shape of graph the enzyme activity of this enzymes is being regulated by what variable:

<p>After looking at the shape of graph the enzyme activity of this enzymes is being regulated by what variable:</p>
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Substrate Concentration

<p>After looking at the shape of graph the enzyme activity of this enzymes is being regulated by what variable:</p>

After looking at the shape of graph the enzyme activity of this enzymes is being regulated by what variable:

<p>After looking at the shape of graph the enzyme activity of this enzymes is being regulated by what variable:</p>
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Metabolism

<p>The totality of an organism&apos;s chemical reaction</p>

The totality of an organism's chemical reaction

<p>The totality of an organism&apos;s chemical reaction</p>
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Bioenergetics

<p>The study of how organisms manage their energy resources</p>

The study of how organisms manage their energy resources

<p>The study of how organisms manage their energy resources</p>
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Catabolic pathway

<p>Release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler ones i.e. Cellular respiration</p>

Release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler ones i.e. Cellular respiration

<p>Release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler ones i.e. Cellular respiration</p>
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Anabolic pathways

<p>Consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones i.e. Amino acids making up proteins</p>

Consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones i.e. Amino acids making up proteins

<p>Consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones i.e. Amino acids making up proteins</p>
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breaks down molecules, negative ΔG

Catabolic

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Energy storing, Positive ΔG

Endergonic

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builds larger products, Positive ΔG

Anabolic

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ΔG = ΔH - TΔS

Equation for ΔG

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symbol G

Free energy

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Symbol H

Enthalpy aka system's total energy

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symbol T

Temperature

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symbol S

Systems total entropy (disorder)

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Adenine, ribose, phosphate group

<p>ATP is composed of</p>

ATP is composed of

<p>ATP is composed of</p>
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Homeostasis

<p>Maintaining a stable internal environment</p>

Maintaining a stable internal environment

<p>Maintaining a stable internal environment</p>
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Death

<p>What happens if we have a decrease or disruption in energy?</p>

What happens if we have a decrease or disruption in energy?

<p>What happens if we have a decrease or disruption in energy?</p>
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pH

hydrogen ion concentration, If H+ concentration is high, pH is low=acidic. If H+ concentration is low, pH is high= basic.

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Catabolism

Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy.

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Anabolism

Metabolic pathways that construct molecules, requiring energy.

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Laws of Thermodynamics

  1. energy can not be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another, 2) each time you convert one form of energy to another, some energy is converted to a non-usable form (more energy efficient to consume plants because they exist very close to the initial source of energy)

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C4 plants

A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into four-carbon compounds, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle.

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light capturing complexes

pigments associated with proteins

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NADPH

electron carrier that provides high-energy electrons for photosynthesis

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