Unit 3 Exam - Honors Chemistry

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Atomic Radius

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32 Terms
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Atomic Radius

The distance between an atom's nucleus and other electron shell

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Atomic Radius Trends

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Molecular vs Ionic Compounds

Molecular

  • nometal + nonmetal (covalent bond)

  • prefixes

Ionic

  • Metal + nonmetal (held together by electrostatic forces, cation + anion)

  • no prefixes

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Electronegativity

measure of the ability of an atom's nucleus to attract electrons from a different atoms within a covalent bond

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Electronegativity Trends

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Ionization Energy

amount of energy needed to remove an electron from an atom

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Ionization Energy Trends

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Types of elements

metals nonmetals metalloids - elements with physical and chemical properties of both metals and non-metals

<p>metals nonmetals metalloids - elements with physical and chemical properties of both metals and non-metals</p>
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Valence electrons

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Diatomic

consisting of two atoms

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which elements are diatomic?

Hydrogen. Nitrogen. Oxygen. Fluorine. Chlorine. Bromine. Iodine

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How do you know if a compound is polar or nonpolar?

Polar molecules are asymmetric, either containing lone pairs of electrons on a central atom or having atoms with different electronegativities bonded

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Formula for each molecular compound a. sulfur dioxide b. carbon tetraflouride c. disphosphorous pentoxide

a. SO₂ b. CF₄ c. P₂O5

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Molecular Compounds Prefixes and Suffixes

Prefixes 1- mono 2- di 3- tri 4- tetra 5- penta 6- hexa 7- hepta 8- octa, 9- nona 10- deca

Suffix -ide

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Why does a metal form a positive ion with bonding?

Metals tend to form positive (+ charged) ions because they have low numbers of valence electrons, which they can lose easily

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Give the formula for each of the following ionic compounds a. calcium iodide b. copper(II) chloride c. ammonium sulfate

a. CaI₂ b. CuCl₂ b.(NH₄)₂SO₄

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Families and Groups

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond consists of the mutual sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between two atoms

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What is the strongest and weakest type of covalent bond?

Strongest - triple bond Weakest - single bond

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Formula for Carbon Tetrachloride

CCl4

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Formula for Calcium chloride

CaCl2

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Nomenclature for dinitrogen dioxide

N2O2

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Which element is more elctronegative? K, Ca, As, Br, Kr

Br

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Which has the largest radii? K, Ca, As, Br, Kr

K

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Which element is the lowest electronegativity? K, Ca, As, Br, Kr

Kr ** noble gases do not have electronegativity

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Lewis Dot Structure for CO2

  • 16 valence electrons

  • steric number of 2

  • linear shape

  • no lone pairs

  • nonpolar

<ul><li><p>16 valence electrons</p></li><li><p>steric number of 2</p></li><li><p>linear shape</p></li><li><p>no lone pairs</p></li><li><p>nonpolar</p></li></ul>
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Lewis Dot Structure for H20

  • 8 valence electrons

  • steric number of 4

  • bent shape

  • 2 lone pairs

  • polar

<ul><li><p>8 valence electrons</p></li><li><p>steric number of 4</p></li><li><p>bent shape</p></li><li><p>2 lone pairs</p></li><li><p>polar</p></li></ul>
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Lewis Dot Structure for NH3

  • 8 valence electrons

  • steric number of 4

  • pyramid shape

  • one lone pairs

  • polar

<ul><li><p>8 valence electrons</p></li><li><p>steric number of 4</p></li><li><p>pyramid shape</p></li><li><p>one lone pairs</p></li><li><p>polar</p></li></ul>
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Polarity

polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole moment, with a negatively charged end and a positively charged end

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Stallion Starter:

a. How many e do haolgens exchange when obtaining a noble has config.?

b. How many e do alkaline earth exchange when obtaining a noble gas config.?

c. How many e do alkali exchange when ionizing?

a. +1

b. -2

c. +1

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steric number

The number of atoms, groups, or lone pairs around a central atom

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lone pairs

pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atom in a covalent bond

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