art history midterm one- vocab

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prehistoric

before written record

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bce

before common era

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3
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ce

common era

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paleolithic

old stone

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neolithic

new stone

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c.

circa

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utilitarian

has a function ex) hammer, tool

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ochre

red/yellow, iron ore, used as a pigment

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in-the-round

In sculpture, a work fully finished on all sides and standing free of a background, 360 carved

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relief

sculpture consisting of shapes carved on a surface with flat back

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twisted perspective/composite view

a representation of a figure, part in profile and part frontally

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groundline

a painted or carved baseline showing standing

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megalith

huge stone

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henge

a circle of stones or posts, often surrounded by a ditch

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cuneiform

(sumer) wedge shaped writing system

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ziggurat

raised platform to put temple higher

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cylinder seal

a round piece of carved stone that when rolled onto clay produces an image

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diorite

specific kind of stone, imported

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bent axis plan

counterclockwise to approach the temple

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hierarchy of scale

biggest object, most important

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stele

upright stone slab or pillar used to mark graves or to commemorate historical events

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registers

technique where you break up a story

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cella

most sacred space, inside temple

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lapis lazuli

blue stone, extremely expensive

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orthostat

upright slabs of stone carved in low relief used to decorate (assyria)

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lamassu

a protective deity originating from the sumerian civilization that is often depicted as a bull or lion hybrid with a human head and bird wings

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apadana

an audience hall in a persian palace

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hieroglyph

a system of writing using symbols or pictures

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ben-ben stone

shaped like a pyramid

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palette

flat object used for mixing meduim

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mummification

preserving of the dead

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ka

part of you that lives on

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mastaba

non royal tomb, flat topped, one story building with slanted walls above underground chamber

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serdab

narrow passage containing statue of the deceased facing toward offering area

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necropolis

city of the dead

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fresco secco

the technique of painting on dry plaster with pigments mixed in water.

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buon fresco

true or wet fresco; pigments are mixed with water and become chemically bound to the freshly laid lime plaster

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medium

-type of art -materials in which art is made

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technique

transforms media into work of art

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diptych

composed of two panels

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triptych

composed of three panels

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polyptych

composed of four or more panels

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frontal

straight on

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profile

looking to the side

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representational

presents natural objects in recongizable form

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abstract

based in reality, but is changed

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non objective

pure, does not have a refrence to anything outside of itself

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figurative

human form is a primary subject

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detail

small piece of a larger painting

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iconography

the study of symbols and their meaning

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patron

person/ organization who funds the art

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patronage

the art of funding

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pylon

massive gateway,marking the entrance of an egyptian temple

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hypostyle

room with several columns holding the ceiling

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clerestory

roof with two different levels that allows sunlight

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sunken relief

specific type of relief carved into stone

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biomorphic

resembling the irregular, curving form of living organism

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ethnocentrism

evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one's own culture

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figure ground relationship

the relationship between a work of art (figure) and the surface upon which it is made

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negative space

the empty space around an object or between objects or between the parts of an object

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foreshortening

technique for creating the illusion of depth in a two-dimensional picture by distorting figures and objects so they appear to recede or project sharply into space

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