IUPUI BIOL-K324 : Exam 1

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What is the Central Dogma?

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184 Terms

1

What is the Central Dogma?

DNA -> RNA -> Protein

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2

What do light microscopes allow us to see?

some of a cell's components led to the discovery of cells

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3

What is the limit of light microscopy?

100 nm

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4

What do electron microscopes allow us to see?

fine structures of the cell

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5

What are the two domains of prokaryotes?

Bacteria and Archaea

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6

What different shapes to prokaryotes come in?

spherical, rod-shaped, spiral

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7

Where did eukaryotic cells come from?

evolved from prokaryotes

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8

What is the major difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Eukaryotes have a nucleus.

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9

Where is DNA found in a prokaryotic cell?

Free floating in the cytoplasm, and some may be in a plasmid (a ring of DNA)

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10

What are the cristae in the mitochondria?

ATP is made in the cristae

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11

How are mitochondria inherited?

maternally

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12

What is the major function of chloroplasts in plant cells?

capture the energy of the sunlight

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13

What are thylakoids?

saclike photosynthetic membranes

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14

What is the stroma of a chloroplast?

the fluid inside the chloroplast but outside the thylakoids

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15

How did chloroplasts evolve?

Chloroplast's evolve via encapsulation of a Cyanobacteria. This Eukaryote then was secondarily encapsulated in a larger Eukaryote in different lineages.

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16

What is the function of the cytoskeleton?

-cell division -protein localization -determination of cell shape

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17

What is the function of the plasma membrane?

Control transfer of substances in and out of the cell.

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18

What is the function of the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum?

protein transport

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19

What is the function of the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum?

Synthesize lipids

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20

What is the function of the Golgi Apparatus?

-modification -packaging -secretion of materials

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21

What is the function of the mitochondria?

produce ATP

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22

What is the function of the lysosome?

Digests cellular waste.

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23

What is the function of the peroxisome?

helps clean materials out of cells, detoxifies achohol

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24

What is cytosol?

Fluid portion of cytoplasm

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25

What is the cytoplasm?

the portion of the cell outside the nucleus

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26

What is the function of the nuclear envelope?

A double membrane with nuclear pores to allow exchange between cytoplasm and nucleus.

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27

What are nuclear pores?

holes in the nuclear envelope where things can pass into and out of the nucleus.

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28

What is the nucleolus?

where ribosomes are made

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29

What is the function of a ribosome?

protein synthesis

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30

What is the function of a vesicle?

To store and transport molecules

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31

What is a centrosome?

microtubule organizing center

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32

What are centrioles?

Centrioles help organize cell division and are formed from tubulin and located near the nucleus.

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33

What are intermediate filaments?

fibers with diameters in a middle range

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34

What is the extracellular matrix?

a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.

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35

What is the cell wall?

Found on the outside of plant cells, it is made of cellulose and strengthens the cell.

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36

What is a nucleoid?

A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.

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37

What is endocytosis?

process by which the cell takes in materials that are too large to pass through

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38

What is exocytosis?

a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.

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39

What is the cytoskeleton made of?

microfilaments and microtubules

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40

What is the function of microfilaments?

Cell movement and cell contraction

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41

What is the function of microtubules?

Movement of organelles and cell shape; they also play a role in mitosis by pulling the chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell

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42

Most ciliates are also....

pathogens

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43

Similarities between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

plasma membrane, ATP as energy, ribosomes

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44

Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Eukaryotes have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles and are plant and animal cells Prokaryotes are mostly bacteria and do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles

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45

Prokaryotes do NOT contain:

microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments, nucleus, endomembrane system

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46

Prokaryotes do NOT go through these processes:

mitosis and meiosis, exocytosis and endocytosis

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47

List some good model organisms:

  • yeast

  • E.Coli

  • arabidopsis

  • flies, worms, fish, and mice

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48

How large is the human genome?

3 billion base pairs

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49

What is a catabolic pathway?

release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds

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50

What is an anabolic pathway?

consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones

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51

What are the two stages of photosynthesis?

light reactions and calvin cycle

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52

What is the reactant and what is the product of a light reaction?

reactant: light and water product: oxygen gas

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53

What are the reactants and products of the Calvin Cycle?

reactants: water and carbon dioxide product: glucose

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54

What is also created during photosynthesis?

ATP

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55

Energy is used to carry out essential reactions that support:

cell metabolism, growth, movement, and reproduction

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56

The rest of the energy is lost as

heat

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57

Catalysts are used to

speed up a reaction

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58

Enzymes reduce the energy needed to initiate spontaneous reactions by

utilizing a catalyst

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59

catalysis

the acceleration of a chemical reaction by a catalyst

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60

Reaction coupling

The tendency of unfavorable biological reactions to occur concurrently with favorable reactions, often catalyzed by a single enzyme

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61

Favorable reactions have

negative free energy

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62

Unfavorable reactions have

positive free energy

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63

metabolic pathway

Begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product.

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64

The rate at which an enzyme catalyzes a reaction depends on

how rapidly is finds its substrates and how quickly the product forms and then diffuses away.

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65

equilibrium constants govern

associations and dissociations that occur between macromolecules and small molecules in the cell

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66

the larger the cell, the ________________ the equilibrium constant

larger

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67

Is the formation of an activated carrier is a favorable or unfavorable reaction?

favorable

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68

What is the most widely used activated carrier?

ATP

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69

What are two activated carriers of electrons?

NADH and NADPH

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70

Is catabolism favorable or unfavorable?

favorable

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71

Is anabolism favorable or unfavorable?

unfavorable

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72

What is the structure of ATP?

knowt flashcard image
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73

What is ATP hydrolysis?

catabolic reaction process by which chemical energy that has been stored in the high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds in ATP is released by splitting these bonds.

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74

How does NADPH accept or donate electrons?

via the nicotinamide ring

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75

What is the oxidizing agent for catabolic reactions?

NAD+

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76

What is the reducing agent for anabolic reactions?

NADPH

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77

What are the major activated carriers?

ATP, NADH, NADPH, FADH2, Acetyl CoA, Carboxylated biotin, S-adenosylmethionine, Uridine diphosphate glucose

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78

What group does ATP carry?

phosphate

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79

What group does NADH and NADPH carry?

electrons and hydrogens

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80

Where is FADH2 used and what does it carry?

It is used in the Kreb's Cycle and it carries electrons and hydrogens

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81

What group does Acetyl CoA carry?

acetyl group

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82

What group does Carboxylated Biotin carry?

carboxyl group

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83

What group does S-adenosylmethionine carry?

methyl

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84

What group does Uridine Diphosphate Glucose carry?

glucose

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85

What is the structure of Acetyl CoA?

knowt flashcard image
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86

What are enzymes?

biological catalysts

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87

Give some examples of enzymes

DNA polymerase, protein kinase, alcohol dehydrogenase

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88

What are structural proteins?

provide mechanical support to cells and tissues

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89

Give some examples of structural proteins

-collagen, elastin, keratin, actin, tubulin

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90

What are transport proteins?

proteins that transport other substances in and out of cell

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91

Give some examples of transport proteins

serum albumin, hemoglobin, transferrin

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92

What are motor proteins?

proteins that turn energy into mechanical work

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93

Give some examples of motor proteins

myosin, kinesin, dymein

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94

What are storage proteins?

storage of amino acids

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95

Give some examples of storage proteins

ferritin, ovalbumin, casein

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96

What are signal proteins?

carry extracellular signals from cell to cell

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97

Give some examples of signal proteins

insulin, netrin, epidermal growth factor

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98

What are receptor proteins?

response of cell to chemical stimuli

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99

Give some examples of receptor proteins

Rhodopsin, acetylcholine receptor, insulin receptor

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100

What are transcription regulators?

bind to DNA to switch genes on or off

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