AP World History Livestream REVIEW—Units 1-3 (90 minutes)

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Song China

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62 Terms

1

Song China

A state during the time period of 1200 to 1450 that maintained and justified its rule through Confucianism and an imperial bureaucracy, with a flourishing economy and the influence of Buddhism on society.

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2

Confucianism

A hierarchical understanding of reality that emphasizes everyone having their place and maintaining order through deference and dignity, which was a source of strength for Song China.

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3

Imperial bureaucracy

Appointed officials responsible for carrying out the empire's policies, expanded and utilized by the Song Dynasty to consolidate and expand their rule.

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4

Civil service examination

A system expanded by Song China to bring order and stability, creating a meritocracy for bureaucratic jobs based on merit rather than birth or class.

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5

Buddhism

A religion originating in India but innovated upon in China, leading to the development of Chan Buddhism through a synthesis with Daoism during the Song Dynasty.

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6

Song economy

Flourished during the time period with innovations like Champa rice from modern Vietnam and the construction or expansion of the Grand Canal, contributing to China becoming a major trading center.

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7

Abbasid Caliphate

A historical Islamic empire that was falling apart as new Islamic political entities emerged.

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8

Dar al-Islam

A cultural region encompassing various Islamic states and empires.

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9

Delhi Sultanate

An Islamic political entity in Northern India that expanded through military means.

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10

Mamluk Sultanate

An Islamic empire in Egypt and the Levant, distinct for its Turkic ethnicity.

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11

Silk Roads

Ancient trade routes facilitating cultural diffusion and the spread of Islam through merchant activities.

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12

Sufis

Mystical sect of Islam known for adapting to local cultures, aiding in the spread of Islam.

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13

Intellectual innovations

Developments such as algebra, trigonometry, and long-form poetry in Islamic empires.

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14

Intellectual transfers

Translation of Greek classics into Arabic by Muslims, contributing to the Renaissance.

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15

Papermaking technology

Adopted and adapted from China by Islamic empires, later influencing European ideas via the printing press.

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16

Cahokia, Mississippian, Inca

Examples of civilizations in the Americas that developed strong states, large urban centers, and complex belief systems.

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17

Tenochtitlan

Magnificent capital city of the Aztec with monumental ziggurats and marketplaces, housing a population of around 200,000 people.

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18

Tribute System

A significant aspect of state building for the Mississippian or Aztec, where local governors were sent to exact tribute from conquered territories in the form of money, land, goods, services, or military support.

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19

Great Zimbabwe

An African state that grew in power and influence due to trade, agriculture, and rich gold deposits, prospering through participation in the Indian Ocean trade network.

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20

Swahili

A new language that emerged as a blend of Bantu and Arabic, showcasing the influence of Islamic merchants in the development of the Great Zimbabwe.

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21

Feudalism

A system of loyalty based on land ownership that organized European society into kings, nobility, knights, and peasantry, with power structures being decentralized.

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22

Networks of Exchange

Refers to trading routes that connected various states and facilitated interactions between them during a specific time period.

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23

Silk Roads

A network of trade routes that facilitated the exchange of luxury goods, with silk being a prominent commodity, leading to the growth of cities and states along the route.

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24

Indian Ocean Network

The world's most significant sea-based trade network before 1500, enabled by understanding monsoon patterns and technological innovations like lateen sails and compasses.

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25

Trans-Saharan Trade Network

A trade network that connected North Africa to the Sahel region and facilitated the exchange of goods such as gold, salt, and slaves.

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26

Caravanserai

Inns and guest houses along trade routes that provided safety, cultural exchange, and facilitated commerce.

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27

Yokes, Saddles, Stirrups

Innovations in animal technology that made traveling on camels, horses, and oxen more efficient, contributing to increased trade along the networks.

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28

Money Economies

Development of specialized money economies, particularly the use of paper money in China, which facilitated trade by being lighter to carry than silver and gold.

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29

New Forms of Credit

Commercial technology that facilitated trade by introducing new forms of credit based on the Chinese model, leading to the establishment of banking houses in European states.

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30

Silk Roads

Ancient trade routes that connected the East and West, facilitating the exchange of goods, ideas, and culture.

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31

Indian Ocean trade network

A network of maritime trade routes that connected regions bordering the Indian Ocean, playing a significant role in the spread of Islam and facilitating trade.

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32

Islam

A monotheistic religion that originated in the 7th century in the Arabian Peninsula, praising the work of merchants and spreading through trade networks.

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33

Merchants

Individuals involved in the exchange of goods and services for profit, playing a crucial role in the spread of Islam and facilitating trade along the Silk Roads and Indian Ocean network.

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34

Swahili city-states

Coastal trading states in East Africa that acted as intermediaries for goods from the African interior, growing in power and wealth through trade.

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35

Sultanate of Malacca

A powerful state on the Malay Peninsula that grew rapidly due to its control of the key chokepoint waterway, the Strait of Malacca, facilitating trade.

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36

Diaspora communities

Settlements of people living apart from their homeland, established in regions like East Africa and Southeast Asia, facilitating trade and economic relationships.

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37

Zheng He

A Chinese explorer who led expeditions throughout the Indian Ocean in the early 15th century, increasing China's power and influence in trade.

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38

Trans-Saharan trade

A network connecting North Africa and the Mediterranean with West Africa, facilitated by innovations in transportation technologies like the Arabian camel and saddles.

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39

Empire of Mali

A West African empire that profited from the gold trade, grew wealthy through taxing merchants, and was influenced by Islam, particularly under Mansa Musa's rule.

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40

Safavid Empire

An empire in the Middle East established in 1501 under the leadership of Shah Ismail, known for being a Shiite Muslim Dynasty.

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41

Mughal Empire

An empire in South and Central Asia founded in 1526 by Babur, known for its expansion under Akbar and religious tolerance.

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42

Qing Dynasty

Also known as the Manchu Empire, it was established in 1636 by the Manchu people in China, with tension arising from the difference in ethnicity between the rulers and the majority Han Chinese population.

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43

Land-based Empires

Empires that primarily controlled territories on land rather than through maritime or sea-based conquests.

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44

Safavid-Mughal conflict

A series of wars fought between the Safavid and Mughal Empires in the 17th century due to conflicting territorial ambitions and religious beliefs.

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45

Songhai-Moroccan conflict

Conflict between the Songhai Empire and the Moroccans, where the latter's use of gunpowder led to the defeat of the Songhai Empire.

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46

Legitimize power

Methods used by rulers to communicate and establish their authority and control over their territories.

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Consolidate power

Various methods employed by rulers to centralize power under a single authority and strengthen their control over their domains.

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48

Devshirme

A system used by the Ottomans to staff their imperial bureaucracy with highly trained individuals, sometimes enslaved Christians.

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49

Janissaries

Elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops and played a crucial role in the Ottoman Empire's military and political power.

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50

Divine right

The belief that a monarch's authority to rule comes directly from God, often used by European kings to legitimize their power.

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51

Palace of Versailles

A grand palace built by Louis XIV of France to consolidate his power and control over the French nobility.

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52

Human sacrifice

A religious practice used by the Aztecs to consolidate power and display the ruler's wealth and authority.

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53

Zamindar tax collection system

A system in the Mughal Empire where elite landowners collected taxes from peasants on behalf of the Imperial government to maintain control.

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54

Tax farming system

Ottoman Empire's practice of auctioning tax collection rights to the highest bidder, allowing for increased revenue and control over territories.

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55

Mexica tribute lists

Lists of goods given by conquered regions to the Aztec Empire as tribute, ensuring a steady flow of resources and demonstrating authority.

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56

Protestant Reformation

A religious movement in the 16th century led by Martin Luther, resulting in the split of Christianity into Catholics and Protestants, causing conflicts in Europe.

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57

Protestant Reformation

A movement in the 16th century Europe that aimed to reform the beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church, leading to the creation of Protestantism.

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58

Counter Reformation

The Catholic Church's response to the Protestant Reformation, involving reforms to address corruption and reaffirm ancient doctrines.

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59

Sunni-Shia split

A division within Islam over the rightful successor to Prophet Muhammad, leading to the formation of two major sects, Sunnis and Shias.

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60

Sikhism

A religion that emerged in South Asia blending elements of Islam and Hinduism, emphasizing monotheism, equality, and social justice.

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61

Interactions of belief systems

Occurrences where different faiths come into contact, leading to the emergence of new and innovative belief systems.

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62

Continuity and change

The concept of maintaining certain aspects (continuity) while introducing new elements (change) when belief systems interact.

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