Honors Biology - Chapter 4: Cells

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What is cell theory?

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What is cell theory?

All living things come from cells, and all cells come from other cells

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What happens to the surface area and volume as a cell size increases?

The volume increases faster than the surface area

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What is a plasma membrane composed of? Which way do the heads face?

Phospholipids, heads face outward toward water

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What is a prokaryotic cell?

Structurally simple and smaller

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What is a eukaryotic cell?

More complex and bigger

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What does the nucleoid region of a prokaryotic cell contain?

DNA

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What are organelles?

Organ-like structures that perform a specific function in a cell

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What domains do prokaryotic cells contain?

Bacteria and Archarea

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What is the most obvious difference between a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell?

Cell size and structure

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What structures do just prokaryotic cells contain?

Nucleoid

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Plant and animal cells are this type of cell.

Eukaryotic

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What do plant cells have that animal cells don't have?

A rigid cell wall, plasmodesmata, chloroplasts, and a central vacuole

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What do animal cells have that plant cells don't have?

Lysosomes and centrosomes containing cellulose

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What are the three regions of the nucleus?

  1. Nucleolus; 2) Membrane(Nuclear envelope); 3) Chromatin

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What is chromatin?

complex of proteins and DNA

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What do chromatin fibers coil up into during cell reproduction?

DNA

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What is the function of the nucleolus?

rRNA(Ribosomal RNA) synthesis

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What do ribosomes manufacture?

Proteins

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What structures does the endomembrane system include? Are they all connected?

The nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum(ER), Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and a plasma membrane. Only two are connected

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What is the endoplasmic reticulum?

Extensive network of flattened sacs and tubules

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Membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum are continuous (connected) to what other structure?

Nuclear envelope

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What is bound to the rough ER?

Ribosomes

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What does the rough ER make?

An additional membrane for itself and secretory proteins

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Enzymes of the smooth ER are important in the synthesis of what?

Lipids, oils, phospholipids, and steroids

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What is the Golgi apparatus?

Molecular warehouse and processing station for the ER

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Are the sacs of the Golgi apparatus connected to each other?

No

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What are the functions of the Golgi apparatus?

A molecular warehouse that modifies, sorts, and ships cell products

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What is a lysosome?

Digestive compartments within a cell

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What makes the enzymes and membranes of lysosomes?

Rough ER

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What are the functions of lysosomes?

To fuse with food vacuoles to digest food, destroy bacteria engulfed with white blood cells, and fuse with other vesicles containing damaged organelles or other materials to be recycled within a cell

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What are vacuoles?

Large vesicles with a variety of functions

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What do protists do with the water they collect from the cell in their contractile vacuoles? What does this prevent the protist from doing?

Eliminate water and prevent protists from bursting

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What might a plant's large central vacuole contain?

Digestive functions containing pigments and poisons that protect the plant

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Is there a direct structural connection between the nuclear envelope, rough ER, and smooth ER?

Yes

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How does a protein manufactured by the ER leave the cell? List all organelles and cell parts involved.

ER - transport vesicle - Golgi apparatus - lysosome - plasma membrane

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What do some vesicles develop into?

Lysosomes or vacuoles

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What are peroxisomes?

Metabolic compartments that break down fatty acids to be used as cellular fuel

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What do peroxisomes do?

Detoxify harmful compounds

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What are mitochondria?

Organelles that carry out cellular respiration and convert food energy to chemical energy in eukaryotic cells(powerhouse of the cell)

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What molecule do mitochondria convert energy into?

ATP

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How many membranes do mitochondria have?

2

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What does the mitochondrial matrix contain?

DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes

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What are the folds of the inner membrane called?

Cristae

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What is the photosynthesizing organelle of plant cells?

Chloroplasts

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What does the cytoskeleton contain and what does it organize?

Microtubules, intermediate filament, and microfilaments

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List the three parts of the cytoskeleton from smallest to largest

Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules

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What are the short, numerous appendages that propel protists called?

Cilia

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How are flagella different from cilia?

Longer and limited

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What are flagella and cilia composed of?

Microtubules

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How are these microtubules arranged? What is this arrangement called?

Wrapped, in a 9+2 pattern

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What are the bending proteins in flagella and cilia called?

Dynein feet

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What is the function of the extracellular matrix?

Support and regulation in animal cells

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What are the three types of cell junctions found in animal tissues?

Tight junctions, Anchoring junctions, Gap junctions

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Which junction prevents the leakage of fluids?

Tight junctions

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Which junction fastens cells together?

Anchoring junctions

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Which junction allows small molecules to flow through?

Gap junctions

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What is the name of the cell junction found just in plants?

Plasmodesmata

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What cell organelles are involved in genetic control?

Nucleus and ribosomes

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What cell organelles are involved in manufacturing, distribution, and breakdown of materials?

Rough ER, Smooth ER, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and peroxisomes

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What cell organelles are involved in energy processing?

Mitochondria and chloroplasts

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What cell organelles are involved in structural support, movement, and intercellular communication?

Cytoskeleton, plasma membrane, extracellular matrix, cell junctions, and cell walls

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What structure is associated with prokaryotic cells?

Nucleoid

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The nucleus of the cell contains what?

DNA

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The complex of proteins and DNA in a nondividing cell is called

Chromatin

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Which cells have a membrane-bound nucleus?

Eukaryotic

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What in a mitochondrion increases the surface area?

Cristae

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