FW 411 Final Question Bank

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True or False: The term "conservation psychology" is interchangeable with "environmental psychology.”

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100 Terms

1

True or False: The term "conservation psychology" is interchangeable with "environmental psychology.”

False

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2

According to the model proposed in the Clayton and Brooke article, conservation behavior is influenced by:

a) The degree to which his/her family is conservation minded.

b) Situational context, existing schemas or past experiences, and personal motivation.

c) Growing up in Western vs. non-Western culture.

d) Religion

Situational context, existing schemas or past experiences, and personal motivation.

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3

For the following questions, pick the appropriate motive that is driving interpretation of

context:

a. Sense of control

b. Positive self-image

c. Sense of belonging

You buy coffee in a recycled package, with pictures of rainforest animals on the front.

You only buy coffee from a vendor that donates 10% of proceeds to orangutan conservation.

You choose your fair trade coffee brand as a way of ensuring fair labor practices in developing countries.

You get coffee at a local coffeehouse that knows your regular order and greets you by name

You buy coffee in a recycled package, with pictures of rainforest animals on the front.: Positive self-image

You only buy coffee from a vendor that donates 10% of proceeds to orangutan conservation.: Sense of control

You choose your fair trade coffee brand as a way of ensuring fair labor practices in developing countries.: Sense of control

You get coffee at a local coffeehouse that knows your regular order and greets you by name: Sense of belonging

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4

Use Clayton and Brook’s conservation psychology model to analyze the phenomenon of people planting yards with turf and exotic plants and provide suggestions for convincing people to create wildlife friendly front yards. 8 points: There are 3 components of the model and the last component has 3 parts. (a hint not on the exam…be sure to address historical context and 3 personal motivators)

-CONTEXT: strong social norm in America for homeowners to maintain neat, well-groomed landscapes.
-INFLUENCE OF EXISTING SCHEMAS: traditionally, home yard care is not defined as a situation with environmental implications. It is common to think of nature as something "out there." Therefore, people have a poor understanding of ecosystems and wildlife habitats.
-PERSONAL MOTIVES:
1. Group identification
2. Positive self-image
3. Sense of control
-SOLUTIONS: a tripartite approach 1. Change the context within people make decisions about yard practices, 2. change the ways in which people perceive yards and nature, 3. change the implications for identity of various law practies

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5

What is the fundamental attribution error?

tendency to explain someone's behavior based on internal factors, such as personality or disposition, and to underestimate the influence that external factors, such as situational influences, have on another person's behavior.

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6

The following situations represent giving stakeholders which of the following (options can be used more than once): a) Access b) Influence c) Standing

  • Giving legitimacy and respect to participant perspectives.

  • Allowing flexibility in the decision space to consider participant input.

  • Engaging in dialogue, debate, and active listening with stakeholders.

  • Making educational material readily available.

  • Holding meetings at convenient times in convenient places.

  • Giving legitimacy and respect to participant perspectives.: Influence

  • Allowing flexibility in the decision space to consider participant input.: Influence

  • Engaging in dialogue, debate, and active listening with stakeholders.: Standing

  • Making educational material readily available.: Access

  • Holding meetings at convenient times in convenient places.: Access

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7

True/false: Public input is always critical to sound management decisions.

True

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8

Stakeholder involvement is important because:

a) All wildlife management decisions are made based on science

b) All wildlife management decisions are made based on politics and values

c) Most wildlife management decisions are made after consulting stakeholders

d) Wildlife management agencies cannot legally make decisions without engaging stakeholders

All wildlife management decisions are made based on politics and values

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9

Which of the following is not a downside of stakeholder involvement:

a) Increasing law enforcement costs

b) Mobilizing agency’s antagonists

c) Short term expenses

d) Potentially undermining agency authority

e) Legal risks

Increasing law enforcement costs

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10

Public hearings are the best form of stakeholder involvement when the issue is very contentious (True/False)

False

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11

Define “decision space” and describe why it must be clearly defined in successful stakeholder involvement processes.

Decision space refers to having multiple allowable solutions and having space to deal with those solutions. When involving stakeholders, they need to know they have access, standing, and influence. If the decision space is not clearly defined, access is revoked. If you are not prepared to be flexible within your decision space, influence is revoked. If you do not allow these two parts to work seamlessly together, standing is revoked.

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12

Describe two situations when you should avoid stakeholder involvement and explain why stakeholder involvement would not be a good idea in those situations.

Stakeholder involvement is not necessary when you know enough to make a quality decision and public support is not critical, or if it is critical, the public will support you if you decide alone. In other words, if the problem is "normal," public involvement is unnecessary. Two examples are extending the hunting season for squirrels and reducing rabies in raccoons.

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13

If a problem is characterized by complexity (e.g., CWD) which stakeholders should be engaged and how?

Scientists. Once an understanding has been gained, the public can be involved.

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14

If a problem is characterized by uncertainty which stakeholders should be engaged and how?

The public should be engaged, but all management decisions should err on the side of caution (following the precautionary principle).

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15

If a problem is characterized by ambiguity (e.g., feral cat euthanasia) which stakeholders should be engaged and how?

The public should be engaged and management decisions should be based upon the values of the public.

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16

The idea that the government manages all natural resources for public use is known as:

a) The Public Lands Act

b) Protection of Endangered Species Act

c) The Public Trust Doctrine

d) The Conservation Land Trust Movement

The Public Trust Doctrine

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17

Identify the following statements as a. Doctrine b. Dogma

  • If the Public Trust Doctrine erodes then the public’s connection to wildlife will erode.___________

Dogma

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18

Peterson & Nelson (2016) argue that which of the following are not adequately credited by the North American Model:

a) Audubon Society

b) Rural land owners

c) Pittman-Robertson Act

d) None of the above

e) A and B

Audubon Society

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19

According to the article, “The Future of Public Trust” by Organ and Mahoney, which of the following does NOT threaten the Public Trust Doctrine?

  • Privatization of wildlife

  • increased export of exotic wildlife

  • Game farms raising wildlife for sale

Increased export of exotic wildlife

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20

You write a brochure aimed at hunters in North Carolina. Unfortunately, some poor grammar goes uncorrected. The confusing grammar would be considered:

a) The signal

b) The channel

c) The receiver

d) Channel noise

e) Environmental noise

Channel noise

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21

In the following situations, which type of filter is affecting the communication pathway? (options can be used more than once)

a.Physical filter

b.Information filter

c.Psychological filter

  • An informational sign is posted in English, but the reader only understands Spanish.

  • A person with anti-governmental attitudes interprets new gun laws as legislation designed to take away all guns from law-abiding citizens.

  • A middle-school student cannot understand vocabulary used in a brochure.

  • A color-blind man is unable to understand a chart that uses red and green for contrasting graphics.

  • An informational sign is posted in English, but the reader only understands Spanish.: Physical filter

  • A person with anti-governmental attitudes interprets new gun laws as legislation designed to take away all guns from law-abiding citizens.: Information filter

  • A middle-school student cannot understand vocabulary used in a brochure.: Physical filter

  • A color-blind man is unable to understand a chart that uses red and green for contrasting graphics.: Psychological filter

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22

In the film An Inconvenient Truth, Al Gore uses multiple avenues to convince the viewer of the urgency of problems associated with climate change. Identify the following as either: a) ethos b) logos c) pathos

  • Gore uses multiple charts, graphs, and testimonies from scientists to show that climate change is happening.___________

  • Gore is a former Vice President, and he is the one delivering the message.________

  • We see scenes of cute polar bears clinging to a melting icebergs. ________________

  • Gore uses multiple charts, graphs, and testimonies from scientists to show that climate change is happening.: logos

  • Gore is a former Vice President, and he is the one delivering the message.: ethos

  • We see scenes of cute polar bears clinging to a melting icebergs. : pathos

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23

Describe two ways the Hunting Heritage Brochure could be improved using insights from the Shannon Weaver model.

1) The main point should be clearly, and quickly emphasized. This brochure may not be read entirely. Thus, it should be easy for a receiver to take a quick glance and be made aware of the main points.

2) Channel noise could be further minimized. Hunters are primarily white men. Additionally, the hunter who are taking younger hunters under their wing may be older. The text should be limited, white space should be increased, and the font should be enlarged. This will make it clearer overall as well as assist any readers who have poor sight.

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24

Describe one way the Hunting Heritage Brochure could be improved using insights from the Symbolic Action model.

The pathos mode of persuasion could be increased. The photos should be more colorful, and not just a brown leafy background. The leading photo should not be a weapon, but something that emphasizes relationships. The overall color scheme could be more bright and relaxing. A quote could be included about someone who learned to hunt from a kind mentor.

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25

Describe how the hunting heritage brochure appeals to pathos, logos, and ethos.

Pathos: the brochure draws on relationships, especially familial or mentor/mentee relationships. It shows photos of families and young children and uses language like "re-kindling the spark in a lapsed hunter."

Logos: The brochure is logical, listing several inter and intrapersonal reasons to hunt. The brochure also includes extrapersonal reasons that hunting is beneficial, including its support of wildlife conservation. Overall, the brochure is logical in its progression.

Ethos: the brochure cites many official agencies or organizations, including the National Shooting Sports Foundation and 4-H, which the target audience may particularly receptive to.

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26

Define any of these key terms: sender, receiver, signal, channel, signal noise, environmental noise.

Sender: the individual initiating the communication

Receiver: the individual receiving the signal

Signal: the information being communicated

Channel: refers to the medium used to send the message.

Environmental noise: noise from outside the system (e.g. the tv is on and is distracting)

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27

Indicate if the following statements give rise to (you can use each option more than once):

a) Relationship conflicts

b) Structural conflicts

c) Value conflicts

d) Interest conflicts or,

e) Data conflicts

  • Different criteria for evaluating ideas______

  • Unequal authority and control of resources_______

  • Misinformation______

  • Different views on how to interpret available information_______

  • Strong emotions and stereotypes_________

  • Different criteria for evaluating ideas: Value conflicts

  • Unequal authority and control of resources: Structural conflicts

  • Misinformation: Data conflicts

  • Different views on how to interpret available information: Data conflicts

  • Strong emotions and stereotypes: Relationship conflicts

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28

Position based bargaining is usually a better way to “get to yes” than interest based bargaining. a) True b) False

False

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29

Describe at least one targeted way to manage each of the 5 types of conflict (relationship, structural, value, interest, data)

Relationship: control expression of emotions through procedures, ground rules or caucuses; legitimize feelings; improve communication
Data: Agree on processes to collect data, decide which data is important
Value: avoid defining problem in terms of value, allow parties to agree and disagree; search for superordinate goal that parties share
Structural: clearly define and change roles, reallocate ownership or control of resources; modify external pressures on parties
Interest: focus on interests not positions; find objective standards and criteria for solution development; develop trade-offs

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30

Describe 2 benefits and 2 drawbacks of both position based and interest based bargaining

Position based:
a) Benefits: does not require trust to work; does not require full disclosure of privileged information
b) Costs: damages relationships; kills creativity

Interest based:
a) Benefits: promotes trust; builds relationships
b) Costs: requires some trust, requires negotiators to disclose information and interests

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31

Explain how efforts to manage commercial and recreational fishing on the NC coast could create each of the 5 types of conflict, and describe one practice that could help resolve, or at least reduce, each of the 5 types of conflict.

Relationship Conflict: individuals may be very passionate about fishing, whether subsistence or recreational. Thus, fishing regulations are likely to draw out strong emotions.
Solution: Legitimize feelings of individuals. For example, show that you want everyone to be able to fish as much as they want, which is why sustainable regulations are necessary.

Data Conflict: individuals may not trust agency evidence for the need of fishing regulations ("No. There's plenty of fish!"). People may have their "own data" that they trust, or they may not think the data is significant.
Solution: Reach an agreement on how data should be collected. Or, perhaps, find a individual from the local community to collect the data to show the data is legitimate and not just "government."

Value Conflict: government regulation could bring out ideological differences between people, most prominently between the managers and the citizens. One might be that individuals are inherently against such government regulation. Another may be that people believe they have an inherent right to take what they wish from the water. Or, people may be triggered by the word "sustainable."
Solution: search for a superordinate goal that all parties share: that individuals should be able to fish, but if the current rates continue, no one will be able to fish in the future. Also, avoid framing the problem or solution in terms of words such as sustainability.

Structural Conflict: perhaps current proposals for new regulations inherently favor different groups. For example, maybe catch limits work in ways that allow large businesses to grow a push out the small businesses. This would be reason for alarm and cause conflict between stakeholders. Additionally, those who do not fish may feel they are not part of the conversation or that they do not have any input.
Solution: Make efforts to remove such processes and structures. For example, perhaps control of resources (fishing allotments) are reallocated. You could remove the ability to sell shares between individuals and say that the transfer process must government regulated.

Interest Conflict: there will likely be stakeholders who are more for or against different management plans. If stakeholders who are rallying for more sustainable laws are pitted against those who just want to fish, heavy conflict may ensue.
Solution: try to be very objective in the decision making process. Don't show bias toward either group

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32

Explain why the phrase “human-wildlife conflict” is usually used incorrectly.

Wildlife don't get into conflict with us...it's people getting into conflict with people over how wildlife and wildlife damage is managed.

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33

What method for conflict resolution has a 3rd party who controls the process and outcome and shares control over issues?

a) Fact finding

b) Mediation

c) Arbitration

d) Litigation

e) Self negotiation

Arbritation

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34

Most wildlife crime is associated with poaching. (T/F)

True

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35

Most organized wildlife crime is linked to which of the following a) Reptiles b) Birds c) Mammals d) Birds e) Fish f) Coral g) Other

Mammals

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36

List and define the three dominant approaches for studying wildlife crime.

drivers of the deviance: the opportunities and reasons that give people the drive to commit wildlife crime (recreational satisfaction, commercial gain, poaching as a traditional right)

profiling perpetrators: different categories that identify perpetrators and their motives (location, motivations, modus operandi, demographics)

categorizing the crime: 3 categories (livelihood, folk crime, social protest) that explain motivation for committing wildlife crime (but these categories are far from discrete and they make assumptions)

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37

Define wildlife crime

Illegal taking of wildlife or wildlife resources

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38

Which of the following are ‘drivers of deviance’ in wildlife crime?

a) Rebellion

b) Tradition

c) VIVA

d) CRAVED

e) All of the above

All of the above

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What was the most important deterrent to poaching among NC wildlife law breakers

(Mayer study)?

a) Fear of family finding out

b) Peer pressure from friends who obey laws

c) Wardens hiding in the area

d) Fear of losing licenses

Fear of losing licenses

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40

What types of wildlife regulations are seen as most legitimate among NC wildlife law breakers?

a) Those protecting tourism

b) Those promoting humane treatment of wildlife

c) Those for increasing wildlife populations

d) Those generating money for local businesses

e) None are legitimate, that’s why they broke the law

Those for increase wildlife populations

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41

What is the most common way to tackle poaching, especially when thinking about drivers

of deviance?

a) Listening to locals

b) Bigger penalties and more police

c) Reducing markets for wildlife products

d) Educating children

e) None of the above

Educating children

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42

Describe a reason why deterrence models may fail to address poaching.

A reason that deterrence models may fail to address poaching is because some people see the penalty to be low, so they do not stop it... Also wildlife criminals are very smart

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43

Explain how to use insights about 2 elements of either VIVA or CRAVED to help reduce wildlife crime.

VIVA (value, inertia, visible, accessible): remove accessibility to remote hunting areas (destroy forestry roads) and add more police to make crime more visible

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44

Contrast ‘good’ and ‘bad’ wildlife criminals based on insights from the profiling the perpetrator research we reviewed. (include at least 2 elements for each)

Good wildlife criminals may be those that are insiders, social, subsistence hunters, continuing old practices, and motivated by social protest
Bad wildlife criminals may be those that are outsiders, loners, commercial hunters, practicing new things, and motivated by money

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45

Explain how wolf poaching could be an expression of livelihood crime, folk crime and social protest crime.

Livelihood crime: if a person is actively losing farm animals do to wolf presence, they may be likely to commit a crime to remove the wolf

Folk crime: if a person has gone his whole life wolf hunting for any reason, they may feel as if they deserve to continue that habit

Social protest crime: to protest against a new law allowing wolf reintroduction (or a law prohibiting wolf hunting) that an individual feels is an infringement of rights. The individual may hunt wolves in direct defiance of the law to show they are serious

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46

The response to wildlife crime most directly in line with rational choice theory would be:

a) Find ways to make the target animals less accessible

b) Encourage new norms that abhor things like shared bags and tags or adding a few minutes to sunset/sunrise.

c) Challenge strategies like appealing to higher loyalties and condemnation of the condemners

d) Raise fines and jail time associated with wildlife crimes

e) None of these options are rational

Raise fines and jail time associated with wildlife crimes.

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47

The response to wildlife crime most directly in line with opportunity theory would be:

a) Find ways to make the target animals less accessible

b) Encourage new norms that abhor things like shared bags and tags or adding a few minutes to sunset/sunrise.

c) Challenge strategies like appealing to higher loyalties and condemnation of the condemners

d) Raise fines and jail time associated with wildlife crimes

e) None of these options fit

Find ways to make the target animals less accessible.

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48

Folk crime is characterized by:

a) Defense of symbolic resources

b) Political messages

c) Economic motivations

d) Continuity and custom

e) Achieving goals

Continuity and custom.

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49

What does a two-tailed t-test tell us about our two sets of data?

a) If the standard deviations are significantly different.

b) If the minimum value of one dataset is larger.

c) If the mean is greater than 0.05.

d) If the means are significantly different.

If the means are significantly different.

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50

What is the standard cutoff for p-values that scientific researchers use to determine whether their statistical results are significant?

a) 0.05

b) 0.5

c) 0.9

d) 0.01

0.05

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51

What would most people notice first about wildlife with disease?

a) Symptoms

b) Signs

c) Prognostics

d) Pathognomonics

e) Procystics

Symptoms

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52

Which of the following is not one of the core defining attributes of “human dimensions”

of wildlife disease management?

a) Threats to wildlife

b) Threats to people

c) Threats to pets

d) Threats to farm animals

e) None of the above

None of the above

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53

What variant of rabies is most common on the eastern coast of the U.S.?

a) Opossum variant

b) Skunk variant

c) Coyote variant

d) Raccoon variant

e) Fox variant

Raccoon variant

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54

Why are zoonotic diseases harder to control in urban areas than rural areas?

a) Wildlife density is lower in cities.

b) Wildlife is harder to control in cities.

c) Urban residents are more likely avoid doing risky things with sick wildlife.

d) Intra and inter species contact is higher in cities.

e) B & D.

B & D

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55

What is a zoonotic disease

a) One that originates among zoo animals.

b) One that people can share with animals.

c) One that jumps between arthropods and avian host vectors.

d) One that comes from raccoons.

e) One that the CDC places on its “top 10” list.

One that people can share with animals.

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56

When do people care about wildlife disease?

a) When there is money involved

b) When there isn’t a vaccine for the disease

c) When people are at risk

d) Both A and C

Both A and C.

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57

Most emerging human infectious diseases originate in animals (T/F)

True

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58

Describe the three key questions from Crozier related to whether and how to tackle wildlife diseases

Will it create human disease/hurt people?

Zoonotic
a) Strong measures for pandemics
b) Rare human infections - leave it alone
c) Rare human infections targeting vulnerable pops - find win-win outcomes to create value from removing diseased wildlife

Will the disease endanger the species?
a) No - leave it alone
b) Yes; is the species taxonomically rare? (keystone species)

Will it hurt users?
a) Big money (sheep in NZ) vs small money (beluga whales for Inuit)

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59

Describe how a wildlife manager should respond to outbreaks of (one of these: brucellosis in NC wild hogs, Parvovirus in wild cheetahs [high virulence], Ebola in central African fruit bats, rabies in NC coyotes) based on Crozier’s decision tree for handling wildlife disease.

Brucellosis in NC wild hogs - it causes human diseases (zoonotic) so leave it alone; it costs too much to treat.

Parvovirus in wild cheetahs [high virulence]

Ebola in central African fruit bats

Rabies in NC coyotes - it can hurt people and lead to human disease; leave it alone; will not hurt users

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60

(T/F) When dealing with wildlife diseases, we typically rely on symptoms rather than signs.

False

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(T/F) A pathognomonic sign is one that indicates, without any doubt, that a specific disease is present.

True

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62

Keeney (2004) recommends decision analysis for making better decision because decision analysis:

a) Applies to all decisions

b) Is based on common sense

c) Simplifies decisions by braking them down

d) All of the above

e) None of the above

None of the above

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63

In which of the following situations is structured decision-making not necessary:

a) Wildlife managers deciding what property to acquire to mitigate climate change impacts

b) Hiker deciding what walking route to take at their favorite park

c) Stakeholders deciding to set a new hunting quota

d) Research deciding to take a new position in a different state or stay in their current

position

Hiker deciding what walking route to take at their favorite park

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64

Describe how you ‘drill down’ to discover a fundamental objective

Ask, "Why do you want that?"

You know you're finished when you can't ask why anymore.

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65

Contrast natural, proxy, and constructed performance measures.

'Natural' - measures directly describe objective outcomes→ increased respiratory health for children

Proxy - measure indicators of natural measures that are too hard to measure→ reduced emissions or increased cardio exercise

Constructed→ tests, scales

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66

Contrast what underlying things you are measuring when you evaluate implementation, outcomes, and impacts.

Implementation- Are you doing what you set out to do? → # of people served, programs delivered, fun had by all, fidelity

Outcome- What kinds of short-term changes are you making? → Changes in knowledge, attitudes, behaviors as a result of your program

Impact- What kinds of long-term changes are you making? → Usually societal level (e.g. environmentally literate citizenry, reduced carbon emissions)

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67

Which of the following were described as core reasons to measure performance?

a) Program assessment

b) Program improvement

c) Demonstrating impact

d) Generating program funding

e) A and b and c

f) A and b and c and d

a and b and c

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68

What type of good or service do hunting clubs provide?

a) Private Good

b) Common Pool Resource

c) Club Good

d) Public Good

Club Good

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69

What type of good or service do national parks provide?

a) Private Good

b) Common Pool Resource

c) Club Good

d) Public Good

Public Good

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70

What type of good or service do fisheries in international waters provide?

a) Private Good

b) Common Pool Resource

c) Club Good

d) Public Good

Common Pool Resource

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71

What is the classification for a good that is non-rivalrous at low use levels but becomes rivalrous at high use levels?

a) Competitive Good

b) Congestible Good

c) Club Good

d) Constrained Good

Congestible Good

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72

Input-Output models use which of the following sources of data to estimate the economic impact or economic contribution of wildlife related recreation?

a) Trip Expenditures

b) Visitation Estimates

c) Buy-Sell Relationships

d) All of the above

all of the above

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73

Classify the following valuation techniques as either revealed preference methods or stated preference methods.

a.Revealed Preference

b.Stated Preference

  • Market Price

  • Contingent Valuation

  • Travel Cost

  • Hedonic Pricing

  • Discrete Choice

Revealed Preference Methods:

  • Market Price

  • Travel Cost

  • Hedonic Pricing

  • Discrete Choice

Stated Preference Methods:

  • Contingent Valuation

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74

Which of the following criteria is a critical component when using the contingent valuation method?

a) Measuring the market value of good.

b) Establishing the status quo.

c) Surveying at least 200 people.

d) Adjusting for inflation.

Establishing the status quo.

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75

Asking respondents to choose between packages with varying attributes is an example of which type of valuation technique?

a) Market Value

b) Hedonic Pricing

c) Contingent Valuation

d) Discrete Choice Experiment

Discrete Choice Experiment

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76

Choose one of the valuation techniques discussed in class and explain how it can be used to estimate the value of wildlife or wildlife related recreation.

The Travel Cost Method estimates the value of wildlife or wildlife-related recreation by analyzing how much people spend to visit recreational sites. Researchers collect data on visitor numbers and travel expenses, then estimate the relationship between visitation and travel costs to determine the economic value. This method helps in making decisions about resource management and conservation efforts.

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77

Define Economic Impact and Economic Contribution. Articulate the difference between these two terms.

Economic Impact assesses the overall effects of an activity on an economy, including direct and indirect changes in various economic indicators.

Economic Contribution, however, specifically measures the share of economic output attributable to a particular industry or activity within the economy.

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78

What is a popular framing of coupled human-natural systems?

  • International fisheries management

  • Re-introduction biology

  • Pest management

  • Ecosystem services

Ecosystem services

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79

Which of the following define system structure?

  • Subsystems

  • Hierarchical Structure

  • Environment

  • Boundary

  • All of the above

  • Only C & D

all of the above

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80

Which of the following is not a feedback type?

  • Positive

  • Neutral

  • Negative

  • Immediate

Neutral

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81

Define resiliency. Why is it important for wildlife habitat management?

Resiliency in wildlife habitat management refers to ecosystems' ability to withstand and recover from disturbances, like climate change or habitat destruction. It's important because resilient habitats sustain biodiversity, provide essential services, and reduce risks to wildlife and people.

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82

Describe two characteristics or phenomena of coupled systems that could have been useful to managers that planned the red wolf re-introduction on the Albemarle Peninsula.

  1. Feedback Loops: These are interactions where changes in one part of the system affect other parts, potentially amplifying or dampening effects. Understanding these loops could help predict how reintroducing red wolves might impact prey populations and vegetation, influencing habitat suitability.

  2. Social-Ecological Interactions: Red wolf reintroduction involves both ecological and social dynamics. Considering how human attitudes and behaviors interact with ecological processes is crucial. Understanding local communities' perceptions and willingness to coexist with red wolves can inform management strategies and reduce conflicts.

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83

Name two wildlife specific impacts of climate change.

• Increased extinction
• Spread of zoonotic disease
• Spread of invasive/non-native species
• Habitat loss • Shifts in species distributions
• Changes in life history
• Increased morality
• Reduction in population size

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84

Climate change is a natural phenomenon that has just recently been discovered. (T/F)

false

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85

Name two approaches to wildlife management under the threat of climate change, and describe why human dimensions should play a role.

Monitoring and Planning-
Incorporate predicted climate change impacts into planning.
We are planning for people and wildlife in areas affected by climate change, since people are there and interact with wildlife, they will have an opinion on how to accommodate wildlife into these new plans

Law and Policy-
Review and modify existing laws, regulations, and policies.
People are the ones who vote and have opinions on these laws, from what we have learned we know that HD is a major part of that.

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86

Describe why human dimensions of wildlife is intertwined with climate change.

Climate change and wildlife management are people management issues.

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87

Climate change and wildlife management are ________ management issues.

people

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88

In the Stevenson-Peterson (2013) reading, the study found that environmental literacy in middle schools was negatively related with:

a) minority status

b) age

c) interest

d) location of the school

age

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89

In the Stevenson-Peterson (2013) reading, the study found that outdoor education had the largest positive impact on environmental literacy for:

a) minority students

b) urban students

c) older students

d) female students

minority students

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90

In the Stevenson-Peterson (2013) reading, the study found that environmental affect and behavior among middle school students was positively related with:

a) minority status

b) age

c) time spent outdoors

d) rural school status

time spent outdoors

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91

List and describe the four key components of environmental literacy.

Knowledge: understanding of the environment and environmental challenges and mitigation

Affect: attitudes of concern for the environment, sensitivity to the environment and environmental challenges, and motivation to improve or maintain environmental quality

Skills: ability to identify and help resolve environmental challenges

Behavior: participation in activities that lead to the resolution of environmental challenges

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92

Environmental education is:

a) Focused on adults

b) Anti-constructivist

c) Experiential

d) A narrow discipline

e) Primarily global

Experiential

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93

Describe the 4 main components of environmental literacy.

  1. Knowledge: Understanding environmental concepts and issues.

  2. Attitudes and Values: Developing positive feelings and respect for nature.

  3. Skills and Abilities: Acquiring problem-solving and decision-making skills.

  4. Action and Behavior: Taking responsible actions to protect the environment.

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94

Define environmental education.

Environmental education teaches individuals how to weigh various sides of an issue through critical thinking and it enhances problem solving and decision making skills. It does not advocate a particular viewpoint or course of action.

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95

Provide 2 reasons why environmental education is important for wildlife conservation

The NAM requires communication with stakeholders

EE training can prepare you to be an advocate of your profession

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96

Provide 2 reasons why wildlife is a great fit for achieving EE objectives.

Wildlife is a good entry point for kids

It's an ideologically neutral topic

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97

Which of the following is NOT an example of how the North Carolina Aquariums contribute towards conservation?

a) Running a citizen science project to ID sand tiger sharks

b) Learning about the habitat requirements of the Crystal Skipper

c) Rehabilitating river otters

d) Raising Carolina Gopher Frog eggs

Raising Carolina Gopher Frog eggs

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98

Describe the changes in the purpose of zoos and aquariums over the years. This question is worth 8 points. You can receive one point for naming the 4 stages of zoos, and 1 point each for explaining how they operated (i.e., their purpose) at each stage.

  1. Menagerie Stage: Zoos served as collections for public entertainment.

  2. Display Stage: They transitioned to educational exhibits about animals.

  3. Conservation Stage: Zoos focused on wildlife conservation and research.

  4. Holistic Conservation Stage: They integrated conservation, education, research, and community engagement into their mission, emphasizing broader environmental issues and sustainability.

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99

True or False: Zoo collections are somewhat of a modern concept, with the first known types developing in the past century

false

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100

Describe two success stories of animals that were saved from population endangerment/extinction due to the help of zoos and aquariums.

  1. California Condor: Zoos and conservation organizations collaborated to breed and release California Condors, increasing their population from 22 individuals to over 500.

  2. Black-Footed Ferret: Through captive breeding and reintroduction efforts led by zoos and conservation groups, the Black-Footed Ferret population rebounded from near-extinction to over 300 individuals in the wild.

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