Music History Ch. 7

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Latin

sacred Italian music was in what language?

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Italian

secular Italian music was in what language?

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Frotolla ( 7 )

  • Italian early secular songs written by Flemish composers (Josquin)

  • strophic , 4 voices

  • homophonic more often than polyphonic; nothing elaborate

  • treble dominated

  • catchy, dance-like rhythm

  • simple, syllabic text

  • forerunner to 16th century Madrigal

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strophic

same music for each verse of text

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El Grillo (2)

  • Josquin Frottola

  • "The Cricket", funny and entertaining text

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Early Madrigal (6)

  • written by Flemish composers in Italy

  • direct descendent from Frottala

  • not strophic; through composed

  • high quality, short, Italian poetry: Petrarch

  • 4 voices, alternation between homophony and polyphony

  • sung at Italian courts after evening meals, etc.

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polyphony

independent melodic lines with imitation

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through composed

different music for each verse

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Arcadelt (3)

  • Flemish early Madrigal composer

  • wrote Il banco e dolce cigno (the white and sweet swan)

  • poetry by Petrarch based on a legend

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Baldasare Custiglione (2)

  • Treatise: "Book of the Courtiers" about court manners ex. #1: all courtiers should be able to sing (Madrigals)

  • Madrigals written in part books ( one part per book )

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Classical Phase (Madrigal) (7)

  • native Italian composers

  • more polyphony and imitation than homophony

  • 5 voices

  • still Petrarch poetry (high quality)

  • text-painting: music expresses text

  • lead to English phase

  • Orazio Vechio

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English phase

  • after Classical Phase

  • Madrigals: good music, mediocre poetry because composers wrote their own

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Orazio Vechio (3)

  • priest/composer/choir director in Venice and later Ferrara (d'Este's)

  • wrote version of Il banco e dolce: set to own classical phase madrigal

  • 1st phrase quotes 1st phrase of Arcadelt's original

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Luca Marenzio (4)

  • transition between classical phase and late classic madrigal

  • wrote 500 + madrigals

  • Italian, very well-known throughout Europe

  • extreme text-painting and chromaticism: no definite key

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Marenzio and D'Este family (3)

  • worked for Cardinal Luigi d'Este at Vatican: Luigi retired to Ferrara and Marenzio followed

  • in d'Este court, wrote for virtuoso female singers "Concerto della Dona"

  • wrote for other court musicians, mixed gender ensembles, private concerts for d'Estes

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Solo e Pensio (2)

  • Marenzio Madrigal

  • poem by Petrarch

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Late Madrigal (6)

  • all classical phase characteristics pushed to extreme

  • 5 voices; chromaticism

  • vague tonality; pitches found outside of chord

  • extreme text-painting and dissonance

  • lack of strong cadences until final one

  • main composer: Gesualdo

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Gesualdo (5)

  • prince of Venossa

  • killed wife and her bf and her kid and moved to Ferrara and married Leonara d'Este

  • Duke Ercole d'Este II gave him refuge and a job

  • wrote Madrigals for court at Ferrara

  • wrote Moro Lasso (Late Madrigal, secular)

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Gesualdo and emotion

  • interested in creating emotions in readers through shocking notes and text

  • chromatic and dissonant

  • many looked down on his composing, but he had knowledge of theory because followed the fundamentals of no parallels and stuff

  • created very unstable feelings with his music; voices imitated each other but at different times and with different note lengths

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Luzzaschi

Who was Gesualdo inspired by?

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Tenebrae (3)

  • service of scripture and prayer (reading and music)

  • service song in dark (translates to darkness) during holy week (Tuesday)

  • Gesualdo wrote one; sacred drastically different from "interesting" secular, not as chromatic or dissonant, lower range

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