Government and Politics AP Unit 1

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natural rights

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64 Terms

1

natural rights

unalienable rights of any human that cannot be taken away by the government or anybody else (life, liberty and property)

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2

popular sovereignty

the power of the government comes from the people

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3

social contract

an agreement among people that results in the organization of society; individuals surrender liberty and freedoms in return for protection from the government

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4

limited government

a government that is legally restricted in the use of its power; checks and balances; Rule of Law

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5

republicanism

representatives are voted into the government to represent the people; rule by the people

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6

federalism

Power is shared between the states and federal government

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7

participatory democracy

Citizens have the power to directly decide on policy and politicians are responsible for implementing these decisions. Emphasizes participation in politics and civil society.

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8

advantages of participatory democracy

Allows for everybody's voice to be heard

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9

disadvantages of participatory democracy

Unfeasible for consistent usage in large populations

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10

implementation/examples of participatory democracy

Referendums and Initiatives, town hall meetings

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11

pluralist democracy

No one group dominates politics Organized groups compete with each other to influence policy Non-governmental groups' activism may impact political decisions

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12

advantages of pluralist democracy

Diverse society with many ideas, prevents power from being abused by one singular group

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13

disadvantages of pluralist democracy

Conflicting ideas can create conflict between groups and facilitate gridlock

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14

implementation/examples of pluralist democracy

Organizations like the National Rifle Association and National Organization for Women donate and advocate for certain politicians and policies

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15

elitist democracy

A small number of powerful or wealthy people influence political decision making Emphasizes limited participation in politics and civil society

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16

advantages of elitist democracy

Less room for conflicting ideas, the "best of the best" of society get to influence political decisions

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17

disadvantages of elitist democracy

Power is given to the minority and ultimately the majority opinion of the people may end up not mattering

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18

implementation/examples of elitists democracy

Electoral College (small number of people actually end up voting for the next president and can go against popular opinion)

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19

Main idea of Federalist 10

A large republic created by the U.S Constitution will be able to fend off the dangers of large majority factions Republics will overall benefit the US

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20

Main idea of Federalist 51

Separation of powers and checks and balances

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21

Main idea of Brutus 1

The U.S is far too large and diverse for a republic to be sustained and for any policy to be passed

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22

Arguments of Federalist 10

Direct democracies allow for majority factions to dominate policy making; the election of representatives would prevent the majority factions from taking too much of the power as there will be numerous representatives elected by people of many diverse backgrounds The large size of the U.S would make it difficult for a direct democracy to work, so a republic would be better suited for the country

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23

Arguments of Federalist 51

Separation of powers and checks and balances are necessary for preventing one small group of individuals from implementing laws only benefiting their own interest and for preventing tyranny as checks and balances and separation of power prevents one branch/group of people from becoming to powerful

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24

Arguments of Brutus 1

The representation of the people's ideas in Congress will be difficult as the country grows and diversifies Up to the point of Brutus 1, Few people in history that were given power in government would voluntarily give it up The commerce clause and elastic clause annihilate the powers of the states The national military could be used to suppress liberty Conflict between the states and federal government will slow the policymaking process.

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25

Articles of Confederation

The first U.S Constitution that gave the power to the states and had a weak federal government Ended up failing and being replaced not too long after

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26

The issues with the Articles of Confederation

Federal government could not tax (could not raise a military), Needed 9/13 states to approve laws in Congress (very difficult to achieve), Needed unanimous approval to add amendments, no national currency, Tariffs in interstate trade, States got into conflict with foreign countries, states could declare war on each other.

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27

The US national government under the Articles of Confederation

Unicameral Congress (no executive branch) Congress could not force states to obey its laws No federal courts A committee of states made up of one delegate from each state when Congress was not assembled Each state had one vote in Congress and needed 9/13 states to approve for passage of laws Needed unanimous approval for amending the articles States could recall representatives whenever they wanted

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28

Shays Rebellion

A group of struggling Revolutionary War veterans, now farmers, in Massachusetts rose up against local debt collectors and the state because they had not yet received payment for their service and were frustrated by the economic policy in Massachusetts at the time.

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29

the impact of Shays Rebellion

Exposed the weak national government that was not able to raise an army to fight the rebellion Displayed the instability of the country Last straw for the framers to amend the Articles of Confederation

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30

The Constitution's improvements of the Articles of Confederation

Made the national government stronger, allowing it to tax and raise an army while also retaining some autonomy for the states

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31

Virginia Compromise

of Representatives are decided based on population

Favored by big states

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32

New Jersey Compromise

of Representatives are equal for all states

Favored by small states

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33

The Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise)

Bicameral Congress House of Representatives that determined the amount of representatives by population Senate that gave the states 2 representatives each

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34

The process of amending the Constitution

2/3 majority in both houses of Congress or approval from 3/4 states

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35

Why did the framer's make it difficult to amend the Constitution?

They believed that by making the amendment process difficult, it would allow for greater stability and for retention of the political ideals that shaped the U.S

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36

Checks and balances

Things the branches of government can do to limit one another's power

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37

Separation of powers

The separation of powers between the branches

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38

Concurrent Powers

Powers held by both the state and the federal government

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39

Reserved Powers

Powers reserved to the state by the 10th amendment

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40

Enumerated Powers (Delegated Powers)

Powers expressly given to Congress in Article I

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41

Examples of Concurrent Powers

Power to tax, enforce laws, establish courts, borrow money, regulate education

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42

Examples of Reserved Powers

Regulate sale of alcohol, regulate intrastate commerce, regulate marriage and divorce, regulate traffic, regulate gambling, license professionals

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43

Examples of Enumerated Powers

make treaties, collect import taxes, regulate interstate commerce, declare war, coin money, create post offices, raise an army, set standard weights, naturalize citizens

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44

Congress's checks and balances

President's veto (Executive Branch)- President may veto laws made by Congress Judicial Review (Judicial Branch)- SCOTUS may call into question the constitutionality of laws made by Congress

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45

Supreme Court's checks and balances

Amend the Constitution/Pass new laws (Legislative Branch)- Congress may pass new laws/amend the Constitution if they don't agree with certain SCOUTS rulings Appointment of Justices (Executive Branch)- President may appoint new justices to swing the overall political views of the Court

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46

President (Executive Branch) checks and balances

2/3 majority (Legislative Branch)- Congress may ignore a president's veto if a 2/3 majority of Congress supports a law Impeachment (Legislative Branch)- Legislative Branch may impeach the president and remove them from office Judicial Review (Judicial Branch)- SCOTUS may call into question the constitutionality of the actions of the president

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47

Enumerated Powers in Article I

power to tax, lay duties, imposts and excises, manage currency, regulate domestic and foreign affairs/trade, raise and manage the army and navy, declare war, etc... (these are the main ones)

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48

Faithfully Executive Powers in Article II

President is the commander and chief of the army and navy, appoint new officials with approval of the Senate, make treaties with the Senate's approval

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49

Judicial Review and the Judicial Powers in Article III

SCOTUS has the power to review the constitutionality of laws passed by Congress and actions of the president The SCOTUS interprets the constitution

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50

Supremacy Clause (Article 6)

Federal laws will reign supreme over state laws if there is conflict

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51

Revenue Sharing

Congress gives part of the federal tax revenue to the states and local counties to fund projects and services.

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52

Federal Mandates

Federal rules that states and localities must obey

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53

Block Grants

Grants from the national government devoted to general purposes that have few restrictions on how they can be used

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54

Categorical Grants

Grants for specific purposes defined by federal laws; they often require local matching funds

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55

10th amendment

Any powers not given the national government are reserved to the states

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56

Commerce Clause

The national government has the power to regulate interstate commerce

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57

Necessary and Proper Clause (Elastic Clause)

Congress may pass any laws that it deems "necessary" and are deemed "proper" Gives Congress implied powers

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58

Implied Powers

Powers given to Congress that are not directly expressed in the Constitution

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59

McCulloch v. MD

Give Congress the ability to create national bank First instance where implied powers were used Prevents states from taxing entities of the national government (Supremacy Clause) Expands federal power

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60

US v. Lopez

Placed boundaries on the Commerce clause, a open ended clause. Congress may not regulate guns as they are not apart of interstate commerce Expands state powers

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61

Article IV of the Constitution

The states' relationship with the U.S and other states

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62

Article V of the Constitution

The requirements for amending the Constitution

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63

Article VI of the Constitution

The transition from the Articles of Confederation to the Constitution

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64

Article VII

The ratification requirements for the Constitution

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