PY 302 Ch. 2

studied byStudied by 36 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

systematic

1 / 110

Tags & Description

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
111
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
111 Terms
1
New cards

systematic

implies that any particular influence contributing to psychopathology cannot be considered out of context

New cards
2
New cards

vasovagal syncope

a common cause of fainting

New cards
3
New cards

syncope

means “sinking feeling” or “swoon” caused by low blood pressure in the head

New cards
4
New cards

sinoaortic baroreflex arc

compensates for sudden increases in blood pressure by lowering it

New cards
5
New cards

developmental critical period

we are more or less reactive to a given situation or influence than at other times

New cards
6
New cards

genes

long deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules, the basic physical units of heredity that appear as locations on chromosomes; single gene is a subunit of DNA that determines inherited traits in living things

New cards
7
New cards

phenylketonuria (PKU)

can result in mental retardation; this disorder, present at birth, is caused by the inability of the body to metabolize (break down) phenylalanine, a chemical compound found in many foods

New cards
8
New cards

Huntington's Disease

this disease has been traced to a genetic defect that causes deterioration in a specific area of the brain, the basal ganglia; causes broad changes in personality, cognitive functioning, and, particularly, motor behavior, including involuntary shaking or jerkiness throughout the body

New cards
9
New cards

sex chromosomes

23rd chromosomes; linked to a person's sex; X and/or Y chromosomes

New cards
10
New cards

dominant gene

one of a pair of genes that strongly influences a particular trait, and we need only one of them to determine, for example, our eye color or hair color

New cards
11
New cards

recessive gene

must be paired with another (recessive) gene to determine a trait

New cards
12
New cards

polygenic

influenced by many genes, each contributing only a tiny effect, all of which, in turn, may be influenced by the environment

New cards
13
New cards

molecular genetics

focuses on examining the actual structure of genes with increasingly advanced technologies such as DNA microarrays

New cards
14
New cards

DNA microarrays

technologies allow scientists to analyze thousands of genes at once and identify broad networks of genes that may be contributing to a particular trait

New cards
15
New cards

diathesis-stress model

hypothesis that both an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder

New cards
16
New cards

diathesis

a condition that makes someone susceptible to developing a disorder

New cards
17
New cards

vulnerability

susceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder

New cards
18
New cards

Eric Kandel

neuroscientist and Nobel Prize winner; speculated that the process of learning affects more than behavior

New cards
19
New cards

chemical transporters

affects the transmission of serotonin in the brain

New cards
20
New cards

alleles

gene; long ones (LL) were able to cope better with stress than individuals with two copies of the short ones (SS)

New cards
21
New cards

gene-environment correlation model

that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder

New cards
22
New cards

cross-fostering

offspring born to one mother is assigned to another mother for rearing

New cards
23
New cards

epigenetics

the study of factors other than inherited DNA sequence, such as new learning or stress, that alter the phenotypic expression of genes

New cards
24
New cards

neuroscience

study of the nervous system and its role in behavior, thoughts, and emotions

New cards
25
New cards

neurons

individual nerve cell; responsible for transmitting information

New cards
26
New cards

dendrite

one type of branch in neurons; have numerous receptors that receive messages in the form of chemical impulses from other nerve cells, which are converted into electrical impulses

New cards
27
New cards

axon

one type of branch in neurons; trunk of neuron that sends messages to other neurons

New cards
28
New cards

action potential

short periods of electrical activity at the membrane of a neuron, responsible for the transmission of signals within the neuron

New cards
29
New cards

terminal buttons

the end of an axon (of a neuron) where neurotransmitters are stored before release

New cards
30
New cards

synaptic cleft

space between nerve cells where chemical transmitters act to move impulses from one neuron to the next

New cards
31
New cards

neurotransmitter

chemicals that cross the synaptic cleft between nerve cells to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next; their relative excess or deficiency is involved in several psychological disorders

New cards
32
New cards

excitatory

causing excitation; activating

New cards
33
New cards

inhibitory

causing inhibition; suppressing

New cards
34
New cards

brain stem

lower and more ancient part of the brain; found in most animals, this structure handles most of the essential automatic functions, such as breathing, sleeping, and moving around in a coordinated way

New cards
35
New cards

forebrain

more recently evolved than the brain stem

New cards
36
New cards

hindbrain

regulates many automatic activities, such as breathing, the pumping action of the heart (heartbeat), and digestion

New cards
37
New cards

cerebellum

controls motor coordination, and recent research suggests that abnormalities in this part may be associated with autism, although the connection with motor coordination is not clear

New cards
38
New cards

medulla

heart rate, blood pressure, respiration

New cards
39
New cards

pons

regulates sleep schedule

New cards
40
New cards

midbrain

Coordinates movement with sensory input; contains parts of the reticular activating system (RAS)

New cards
41
New cards

thalamus and hypothalamus

relays between brain stem and forebrain; behavioral and emotional regulation

New cards
42
New cards

limbic system

emotions, basic drives, impulse control; associated structures and psychopathology

New cards
43
New cards

basal ganglia

caudate nucleus, motor activity

New cards
44
New cards

forebrain (cerebral cortex)

most sensory, emotional, and cognitive processing; two specialized hemispheres; left = verbal, math, logic; right = perceptual

New cards
45
New cards

somatic branch of PNS

controls voluntary muscles and movement

New cards
46
New cards

Autonomic branch of PNS

sympathetic and parasympathetic branches; regulates cardiovascular system & body temperature; also regulates the endocrine system and aids in digestion

New cards
47
New cards

temporal lobe

associated with recognizing various sights and sounds and with long-term memory storage

New cards
48
New cards

parietal lobe

associated with recognizing various sensations of touch and monitoring body positioning

New cards
49
New cards

occipital lobe

associated with integrating and making sense of various visual inputs

New cards
50
New cards

frontal lobe

responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking and reasoning, planning for the future, and long-term memory

New cards
51
New cards

somatic nervous system

controls the muscles, so damage in this area might make it difficult for us to engage in any voluntary movement, including talking

New cards
52
New cards

autonomic nervous system

regulate the cardiovascular system (for example, the heart and blood vessels) and the endocrine system (for example, the pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, and gonadal glands) and to perform various other functions, including aiding digestion and regulating body temperature

New cards
53
New cards

endocrine system

each gland produces its own chemical messenger, called a hormone, and releases it directly into the bloodstream

New cards
54
New cards

hormone

chemical messenger produced by the endocrine glands

New cards
55
New cards

epinephrine

produced by adrenal glands, also called adrenaline; response to stress, as well as salt-regulating hormones

New cards
56
New cards

thyroxine

produced by thyroid; facilitates energy metabolism and growth

New cards
57
New cards

pituitary gland

master gland that produces a variety of regulatory hormones; and the gonadal glands produce sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone

New cards
58
New cards

sympathetic nervous system

primarily responsible for mobilizing the body during times of stress or danger (fight or flight) by rapidly activating the organs and glands under its control; heart beats faster, thereby increasing the flow of blood to the muscles; respiration increases, allowing more oxygen to get into the blood and brain; and the adrenal glands are stimulated

New cards
59
New cards

parasympathetic nervous system

takes over after the fight or flight has been active for a while, normalizing our arousal and facilitating the storage of energy by helping the digestive process

New cards
60
New cards

psychoneuroendocrinology

subset of research for endocrine system

New cards
61
New cards

hypothalamic–pituitary-adrenocortical axis

the hypothalamus connects to the adjacent pituitary gland, which is the master or coordinator of the endocrine system; the pituitary gland, in turn, may stimulate the cortical part of the adrenal glands on top of the kidneys

New cards
62
New cards

telomeres

certain structures that cap the ends of chromosomes to protect the chromosome from deteriorating or getting entangled with neighboring chromosomes

New cards
63
New cards

brain circuits

neurotransmitter currents or neural pathways in the brain

New cards
64
New cards

agonist

chemical substance that effectively increases the activity of a neurotransmitter by imitating its effects

New cards
65
New cards

antagonists

in neuroscience, a chemical substance that decreases or blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter

New cards
66
New cards

inverse agonists

chemical substance that produces effects opposite those of a particular neurotransmitter

New cards
67
New cards

reuptake

action by which a neurotransmitter is quickly drawn back into the discharging neuron after being released into a synaptic cleft

New cards
68
New cards

glutamate

amino acid neurotransmitter that excites many different neurons, leading to action

New cards
69
New cards

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

neurotransmitter that reduces activity across the synapse and thus inhibits a range of behaviors and emotions, especially generalized anxiety

New cards
70
New cards

MSG

monosodium glutamate; can increase the amount of glutamate in the body, causing headaches, ringing in the ears, or other physical symptoms in some people

New cards
71
New cards

serotonin

neurotransmitter involved in processing of information and coordination of movement, as well as inhibition and restraint; it also assists in the regulation of eating, sexual, and aggressive behaviors, all of which may be involved in different psychological disorders; its interaction with dopamine is implicated in schizophrenia

New cards
72
New cards

selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

used to treat a num­ber of psychological disorders, particularly anxiety, mood, and eating disorders; affects serotonin more directly than other drugs, including the tricyclic antidepressants

New cards
73
New cards

norepinephrine

(also noradrenaline) neurotransmitter active in the central and peripheral nervous systems, controlling heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration, among other functions; because of its role in the body’s alarm reaction, it may also contribute generally and indirectly to panic attacks and other disorders

New cards
74
New cards

monoamine class

include norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline), serotonin, and dopamine

New cards
75
New cards

amino-acid class

include gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate

New cards
76
New cards

beta-blockers

these drugs block the beta-receptors so that their response to a surge of norepinephrine is reduced, which keeps blood pressure and heart rate down

New cards
77
New cards

dopamine

neurotransmitter whose generalized function is to activate other neurotransmitters and to aid in exploratory and pleasure-seeking behaviors (thus balancing serotonin); a relative excess of dopamine is implicated in schizophrenia (although contradictory evidence suggests the connection is not simple), and its deficit is involved in Parkinson’s disease

New cards
78
New cards

reserpine

this drug and more modern antipsychotic treatments affect a number of neurotransmitter systems, but their greatest impact may be that they block specific dopamine receptors, thus lowering dopamine activity

New cards
79
New cards

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

individuals with this severe anxiety-based disorder suffer from intrusive, frightening thoughts—for example, some patients may fear that they might have become contaminated with deadly germs and will poison their loved ones if they touch them

New cards
80
New cards

initiating factors

the reasons why a problem develops in the first place

New cards
81
New cards

maintaining factors

the reasons why a problem still persists

New cards
82
New cards

precision medicine

tailoring the treatment to the individual patient in order to optimize therapy outcome

New cards
83
New cards

Insel, Scanlan, Champoux, and Suomi (1988)

raised two groups of rhesus monkeys identically except for their ability to control things in their cages; one group had free access to toys and food treats, but the second group got these toys and treats only when the first group did; in other words, members of the second group had the same number of toys and treats but could not choose when they got them; the monkeys in the first group grew up with a sense of control over things in their lives and those in the second group didn’t

New cards
84
New cards

William Greenough

he and his associates raised rats in a complex environment that required significant learning and motor behavior, which affected the structure of the rats’ brains; this supports the role of psychological factors in biological development

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 47701 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(537)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard51 terms
studied byStudied by 497 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(16)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard121 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard312 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard155 terms
studied byStudied by 55 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)