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Matter

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29 Terms

1

Matter

anything that takes up space and has mass

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2

element

a substance that cannot be broken down further by a chemical reaction

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3

Compound

a substance containing 2 or more elements combined chemically

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4

Essential Elements

essential to survive and reproduce (Carbon, Oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, Phosphate, (CHOPN))

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5

trace element

an element that occurs at very small quantities in the body but is nonetheless important for many biological processes

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6

octet rule

elements will gain lose or share an electron to complete the valence shell and become stable

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7

chemical bond

an attraction between two atoms resulting from the sharing or transfer of valence electrons

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8

electronegativity

the tendency of an atom to attract electrons

<p>the tendency of an atom to attract electrons</p>
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9

covalent bond

when two or more atoms share electrons

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10

Single Covalent Bond- Double Bond- Triple bond

One pair of share e- Two pairs of shared e- Three pairs of shared e-

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11

Polar bond

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12

Non Polar

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13

ionic bond

the attraction between oppositely charged atoms

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14

metal transfers electrons to:

Non metals

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15

cation

a positively charged ion

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16

anion

a negatively charged ion

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17

hydrogen bond

the partially positive atom in one polar covalent molecule will be attracted to an electronegative atom in another polar covalent molecule

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18

intermolecular bond

bond that forms between molecules

<p>bond that forms between molecules</p>
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19

polarity

unequal sharing of the electrons that make a polar molecule

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20

cohesion

attraction of other molecules from molecules of the same kind (responsible for surface tension)

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21

adhesion

the clinging of one molecule to a different molecule (allows for water to cling to cell walls)

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22

Capillary action

the upwards movement of water due to the forces of cohesion, adhesion, and surface tension. works against gravity and occurs when adhesion is greater than cohesion

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23

High Specific Heat

Water resists change in temperature

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24

Evaporative cooling

water has a high heat of vaporization (Moderates the climate and prevents organisms from overheating)

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25

Density

as water solidifies it expands and becomes less dense

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26

Solvent

a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

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27

solute

the dissolved matter in a solution; the component of a solution that changes its state

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28

solution

a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances; frequently a liquid solution

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29

Ionic Compounds

Partially negative oxygen in water will interact with positive atoms Partially positive hydrogen in water will interact with negative atoms Dissolves ions

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