global studies midterm

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time-space compression

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44 Terms

1

time-space compression

-David Harvey Technological advances make the distance seem smaller; increasing interdependence of places far apart -ie phones

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2

neoliberalism

-free markets and trade, the idea of small government/ small gov intervention & individualism, very unrestricted -associated with 'G' lobalization -ie lowering trade barriers

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3

'g' lobalization

-Matt Sparke -a process; integration and interdependence of social, economic, and political ideas

  • it is unequal and uneven -ie multinational companies exploiting cost of labor across different countries creating inequality -is heavily influenced by narrative of 'G'lobalization

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4

'G' lobalization

-Matt Sparke

  • "buzzword" and a discourse intended to describe and produce a form of global interdependence -associated with free market policies like neoliberalism and Washington consensus

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5

Politics of Positioning

-what is at stake in how we are positioned in relation to others on account of different factors ie gender, race, citizenship -how and why this positioning matters in our lives

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6

"The world is flat"

-Thomas Friedman: what he saw in India -globalization levels the playing the field of opportunity essentially creating a 'flat earth'

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7

Washington consensus

-Sparke -list of ten economic policies associated w/ 'G'lobalization -made up of 3 institutions: free trade, little gov intervention, and cutting gov spending in other countries -also comprised of world bank, International Monetary Fund, and department of treasury -some of ten policies include: reducing taxes, export led development, and de-unionizing

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8

Colonialism

-form of imperialism and is formal control over one territory and its people by another; people actually moving in and taking over ; practice of setting up colonies -often involving ideologies of superiority and a distinct difference between colonizer and colonized -ie India, Africa

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9

Imperialism

-form of the extension of state power across space -domination of one geographical area by another -the idea behind the practice of colonialism

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10

settler colonialism

-permanent occupation; violent land expropriation -displacement/ death of indigenous people

  • ie large settler populations in America

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11

decolonization

-process through which imperial states relinquish control of subjugated ppl/area & this leads to an increasing number of nation states -1945 (end ww2)- 75 nation states, 51 in UN -1975: 150 nation states ___ in UN -today: 195 nation states w/193 being in UN and 2 observer states

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12

North Atlantic slave trade

-europe bringing slaves to America to work on tobacco, cotton, and sugar -> raw goods shipped back to Europe to be made into textiles -> textiles sold back to colonies and to Africa to trade for more slaves -heart of the world economy at the time -during 1st age of empire

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13

1st age of empire

-1450 - 1750 -colonial exploration mostly in americas (settler colonies) -extensive administration- Spain and Portugal acting as helicopter parents -"great dying"- massive deaths of indigenous people -transatlantic slave trade -settler colonialism

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14

informal empire

-1750 - 1875 -South American countries declaring independence -age of intensified imperialism concentrated in Asia and Africa -enclave/trading colonies were common forms -opium wars: British empire flooding Qing empire with opium in their ports to gain access to trade and tea- led to 100 years of national humiliation

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15

2nd age of empire

-1875 - 1914 (or 1945) -classic/high age of empire -formal colonization of Africa and Asia (scramble for Africa) -conference of Berlin 1884 -direct and indirect rule

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16

scramble for africa

-1884 conference of Berlin -africa literally cut up between France, Germany, Britain, Italy, Portugal, Spain and king Leopold 2 of Belgium with no respect to previous villages, borders, or ethnic groups -created 30 new African colonies and divided 110 million africans into new political units

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17

Haiti's double debt

-20 years after Haiti's independence France made Haiti pay $150 million over 5 years or be attacked -haiti couldn't afford this, so they had to take out loans with interest from France creating double debt -caused between $21 - 115 million loss of Econ growth over time

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18

discourse

  • hall w/ west and rest but Foucault is on slide -historically and geographically specific system of knowledge that structures how we think about and act upon the world -ways of talking, thinking, or representing a particular subject/topic

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19

discursive practice

-Hall -practice is not just a set of ideas, but how the ideas from discourse are used/practiced in the world -the way that discourse influences the way we act on the world

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20

orientalism

-Edward Said -west vs islam -orient as the "other " -imitation/depiction of Middle East through western perspective, perception of the other being inferior, but still wanting/needing their resources

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21

Foucault

-philosopher -he shaped how we think about discourse

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22

Hierarchical dualism

-Hall -boundaries between categories have a hierarchy, there are dualisms with an implied power structure -ie the west is deemed superior to the rest

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23

west and the rest

-Stuart Hall -the idea that there are western countries that are superior, dynamic, modern, advanced -and then there is the rest which is traditional, undeveloped, uncivilized

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24

noble savage myth

-Hall -conception of man enjoying natural and noble existence until civilization makes him a slave to unnatural wants and corrupts him

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25

"free" market doctrine

-Chang -believed that markets create most econ activity when they are free and should be free of gov intervention -chang's response is that markets are propped up by rules, and to not mistake our blindness of rules as a lack of them -"do as I say, not as I did"

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26

trade protectionism

-Chang -focus around tariffs -protecting infant industries

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27

trade liberalization

-Chang -elimination of tariffs on imported goods and eliminations of subsidies for national producers

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28

international institution

-institutions are rules, decision making procedures and programs that shape social practices -they vary but can be spoken and unspoken/ rules on paper and rules in use -they are dynamic not static ie United Nations / bretton woods institutions

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29

Bretton woods institutions

-institutions we can see and feel the affect of -International Bank for reconstruction and development: provided loans for post war reconstruction of europe -> becomes world bank -International Monetary Fund: goal is to keep money moving around, does not provide loans or fund projects -general agreement on tariffs and trade (GATT) -> becomes WTO: controls what tariffs can be put on goods

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30

multilateralism

-alliance of multiple states pursing a common goal -distinguished from bilateral or unilateral

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31

US hegemony

-dominance of one social group or nation over others, not "hard" power, but convincing the subordinate group that its rule serves their interests -US pushing their ideas of security and economics on other countries, like national security strategies, another example are Bretton woods institutions

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32

Cold War

-period of global tension around US and Russia, lead to greatly diminished hope for new era of cooperations

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33

WTO

controls what tariff can be put on goods and places -originally GATT - general agreement on tariffs and trade -part of Bretton woods institutions

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34

Doha Round (WTO)

-started 2001, has been going for about 20 years when typically rounds are 5 = failure for WTO -BRICS countries gaining lot of econ momentum and are asking for more power -specifically around agricultural subsidies, and BRICS turned it around to say US should be getting rid of some of their subsidies -Hopewell's argument is that brics aren't against free trade, they are against the US's distribution of power

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35

state sovereignty

-conceived in 1648 by treaty of Westphalia -in theory the principle that each state has exclusive authority over its territory -supremacy over domestic affairs -independent and equality in foreign affairs

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36

human rights

envisioned and conceptualized in universal declaration of human rights as rights that belong to every person on earth -focus is on people and getting gov to respect these rights including right to shelter, eat, have identity

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37

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

-1948 headed by Eleanor Roosevelt -aspirational non binding document outlining basic rights of all people on earth -was never ratified bc all countries would not ratify it, so holds no legal weight

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38

BRICS

  • Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa -countries considered to have increasing Econ/political clout in world and are considered to be middle income countries / starting to see shift from agriculture to manufacturing

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39

global north/global south

-Mohanty -is a discourse- comes with different ideologies and ways of thinking -inequality between the two, global north full of western ideation and highly developed areas where global south is full of exploitation and aren't as developed

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40

commodity

any good or service that is produced by human labor and is offered for sale on the market

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41

commodity chain

network of labor and production processes whose end result is a finished commodity

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42

outsourcing

shifting operation from a branch plant to an independent contractor SOMEWHERE (could be home country or abroad) bc of cost, quality, and reliability- contracting out parts of the production process

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43

offshoring

-if a company outsources abroad -relocating a business function to another country, geographic movement of production to another country

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44

special economic zone

-aimed to increase foreign investment, trade, and job creations -bounded subnational spaces ; designated land from a country with different laws and regulations that allow them to set their own labor laws -primarily for export oriented industries and are physically fenced off -these can be seen in china

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