IB Biology SL - Topic 6: The Immune System

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Bacteria

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48 Terms

1

Bacteria

Prokaryotes that divide via binary fission; can cause food poisoning, ear and eye infections, cholera, and diarrhea

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2

Fungi

Eukaryotes that reproduce via spores; can cause athlete's foot, allergic reactions, and respiratory problems

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3

Viruses

Acellular and non-living organisms that need a host to carry out the functions of life; can cause flu, HIV, smallpox, measles, common cold, herpes, ebola, etc

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4

Protozoa

Simple parasites; can cause malaria, leishmaniasis, and toxoplasmosis

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5

Methods of Transmission

Inhaled droplets, direct contact, bodily fluids, animal vectors, ingestion

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6

Mucous Membranes

First line of defense; trap invaders, pH is not favorable to pathogens, lysozome enzymes break down pathogens, natural organisms provide competitive exclusion

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7

Skin

First line of defense; continuous and tough, dry, pH is not favorable to pathogens, lysozomes in sweat break down pathogens, natural organisms provide competitive exclusion

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8

Platelets

Solid parts of the blood that aid in blood clotting

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9

Clotting Factors

Proteins that help to stop bleeding via creating blood clots

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10

Fibrin

Protein which forms a mesh of fibers across open wounds; activated after outside exposure

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11

Thrombin

Chemical that converts fibrinogen (soluble in blood) to fibrin (not soluble)

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12

Atherosclerosis

Degenerative disease where fibrous tissue grows in the damaged areas of artery walls; build-up of cholesterol forms plaques which leads to a loss of elasticity, narrowing the lumen and restricting blood flow

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13

Coronary Thrombosis

Blood clot forming in the blood vessels of the heart, caused by the rupturing of built-up plaque

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14

First Line of Defense

Non-specific; skin, mucous membranes, secretions of skin and mucous membranes

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15

Second Line of Defense

Non-specific; phagocytic leukocytes, antimicrobial proteins, inflammatory response, fever

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16

Third Line of Defense

Acquired and specific; lymphocytes, antibodies, memory cells

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17

Histamine

Chemical produced by leukocytes (basophils and mast cells) which aids in the inflammatory response

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18

Inflammatory Response

Hives, itching, capillary permeability; overreaction may cause allergies

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19

Antigen

Molecule recognized as foreign by the immune system, being treated as a foe; outlines the surface of cells

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20

Self Marker (MMC)

Labels the body's cells as 'friend' and are tolerated by the immune system

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21

Phagocytic Leukocytes

White blood cells which attach to pathogens' cell surfaces and engulf them

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22

Chemotaxis

Movement in response to chemicals

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23

Phagosome

Vesicle within the phagocyte which forms when the pathogen has been engulfed; contains it and lysosomes deposit enzymes to break it down

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Phagocytosis

The process of endocytosis utilized by phagocytes

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25

Zoonosis

A disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans; e.g. ebola and salmonella

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26

Humoral Response

Process in the third line of defense in which antibodies are produced

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27

Helper T-cells

Cells to which antigens on the surface of phagocytes (after phagocytosis) bind to; activates B-cells

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28

B-cells

Cells which divide to produce plasma and memory cells

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29

Plasma Cells

Produce antibodies specific to an invader

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30

Memory Cells

Remember invaders for future recognition; allows for the development of immunity, particularly in vaccination

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31

Cytokines

Chemicals used for cell activation between Helper T-cells and B-cells

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32

Antibodies

Immunoglobulins; proteins produced by plasma cells which mark invaders due to their antigens, triggering an immune response

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Paratope

Part of the Y-shaped antibody; variable and specific to an antigen's epitope

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34

Precipitation

Makes soluble antigens insoluble, aiding in their elimination via phagocytosis

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35

Agglutination

Links cell-bound antigens together, causing clumping which aids in elimination via phagocytosis

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36

Neutralization

Marks dangerous parts of the pathogen (e.g. exotoxins) which aids in elimination via phagocytosis

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37

Inflammation

Triggers histamine release, increasing immune mobility which aids in elimination via phagocytosis

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38

Complement

Protein perforates the cell membrane and leads to cell lysis (breaks open the cell, killing the pathogen)

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39

Active Acquired Immunity

Production of own antibodies due to natural or artificial (vaccine) exposure

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40

Passive Acquired Immunity

Ready-made antibodies due to maternal antibodies or other sources (e.g. rabies treatment)

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41

Innate Immunity

Genetic immunity

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42

Acquired Immunity

Development of immunity through the third line of defense

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43

Vaccination

Allows for individuals to become immune to a disease without experiencing it

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44

Primary Immune Response

Initial immune response to a vaccine; body is presented with inactive virus or antigens

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45

Antibiotics

Medicine which combats prokaryotic bacteria by disrupting structures and metabolic pathways; e.g. penicillin

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46

Penicillin

Antibiotic derived from the fungus S. aureus; discovered by Fleming and supported by Florey & Chain

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47

HIV

Human Immunodeficiency Virus; gradually attacks the immune system by damaging Helper T-cells; can lead to AIDS

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48

AIDS

Caused by HIV; the immune system is too weak to fight off infection, eventually leading to death by opportunistic diseases; diagnosed when there is 200 Helper T-cells per mm3

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