5.1 Deuterostomia

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Deuterostomia

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1

Deuterostomia

Develops anus first from blastopore. Undergoes radial cleavage and produces coelom through enterocoely.

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2

Cephalochordata

Head + Chord, segmented marine animals with notochord from head to tail

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3

Urochordata

Tail + chord, gill slits, dorsal nerve cord, notochord

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4

Hemichordata

Half + chord, gill slits, post anal tail, dorsal hollow nerve cord, stomochord

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5

Echinodermata

Phylum of deuterostomes with spiny skin; exclusively marine organisms like feather stars, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sea stars, and basket stars.

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6

Pentaradial Symmetry

Body plan that contains five ambulacral zones.

<p>Body plan that contains five ambulacral zones.</p>
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7

Tests

Dried skeletonized bodies of Sea Urchins that show zones.

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8

Ambulacral Zone

Houses important structures such as nerves, blood vessels and water vascular systems.

<p>Houses important structures such as nerves, blood vessels and water vascular systems.</p>
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9

Ossicles

Tiny, hard bones/plates used to protect the body of an echinoderm. Bound by catch collagen and covered with tubercules.

<p>Tiny, hard bones/plates used to protect the body of an echinoderm. Bound by catch collagen and covered with tubercules.</p>
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10

Tubercles

Attachment points of spines or spicules in the dermis which aids structural ability, protection and movement.

<p>Attachment points of spines or spicules in the dermis which aids structural ability, protection and movement.</p>
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11

Water Vascular System

Set of canals and tube-feet that form a hydraulic system for locomotion, food and waste transportation and respiration.

<p>Set of canals and tube-feet that form a hydraulic system for locomotion, food and waste transportation and respiration.</p>
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12

Madreporite

A part of the water vascular system by which entry of seawater is controlled.

<p>A part of the water vascular system by which entry of seawater is controlled.</p>
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13

Papulae

Skin gills/dermal branchiae (soft bumps on the body). Absorbs oxygen from water. Covered with epidermis.

<p>Skin gills/dermal branchiae (soft bumps on the body). Absorbs oxygen from water. Covered with epidermis.</p>
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14

Pedicellarae

Tiny pincer-like projections. Functions to keep the body surface free of debris, protects the papulae and aids in food capture. (Claw-like)

<p>Tiny pincer-like projections. Functions to keep the body surface free of debris, protects the papulae and aids in food capture. (Claw-like)</p>
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15

Aristotle's Lantern

Mouth of sea urchins that's located on the underside of their bodies.

<p>Mouth of sea urchins that&apos;s located on the underside of their bodies.</p>
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16

Ectoneural

With circumoral ring and radial nerves.

<p>With circumoral ring and radial nerves.</p>
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17

Hyponeural

Away from the mouth.

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18

Aboral

Farthest from mouth, nerve ring around anus.

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19

Nerve Net

Collection of nerves that branch anywhere.

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20

Tactile and chemoreceptors

Senses surroundings, pressure, and substrate including movement and chemicals.

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21

Podia

Senses surfaces.

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22

Terminal tentacles

Senses food particles, surfaces, and water quality.

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23

Photoreceptors

Senses light.

<p>Senses light.</p>
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24

Statocysts

Senses balance, sinking and rising.

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25

Hemal System

Circulates body fluids. Involved in transport of nutrients but doesn't include gaseous exchange. Arranged in a series of hemal rings.

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26

Peritoneal Cilia

They circulate body fluids by lining the body wall and using a beating motion to move the fluid around.

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27

Axial Complex

Filters blood vascular fluids that flows in the hemal system.

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28

Notochord

Major distinguishing feature of phylum Chordata. Flexible rod, first of endoskeleton to appear.

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29

Dorsal Nerve Chord

It is a unique feature in chordates found in the anterior end of the body. It comprises of the brain and spinal chord.

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30

Endostyle

Group of cells that can secrete mucus for food trapping.

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31

Post-Anal Tail

Associated with muscle for motility.

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32

Pharyngeal Gill Slits/Pouches

Filter-feeding apparatus.

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33

Superclass Agnatha

Animals with no jaw and no paired appendages but has pore-like gill openings and a slender and elongated body form

<p>Animals with no jaw and no paired appendages but has pore-like gill openings and a slender and elongated body form</p>
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34

Ostracodermi

Armored fish that are extinct.

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35

Class Myxini

"Slime". Hagfishes or slime eels. They produce incredible amounts of mucus when in danger.

<p>&quot;Slime&quot;. Hagfishes or slime eels. They produce incredible amounts of mucus when in danger.</p>
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36

Barbels

Whisker-like structure in mouths of Myxini. Used for sensing the environment like water pressure, water quality and chemical presence in water.

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37

Class Petromyzontida

"Stone" + "Sucking". Lampreys. They are known for their specific oral structures and long larval growth. They have a distinct mouth with suckers.

<p>&quot;Stone&quot; + &quot;Sucking&quot;. Lampreys. They are known for their specific oral structures and long larval growth. They have a distinct mouth with suckers.</p>
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38

Buccal Funnel

Mouth of a lamprey which as rows of keratinized teeth used for sticking while its tongue creates the hole it feeds on.

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39

Superclass Gnathostomata

Account for 99% of the diversity of vertebrates. Have jaws, and paired appendages.

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40

Class Chondrichthyes

"Cartilage" + "Fish". Rays, skates and sharks. Has cartilaginous skeleton and are living fossils. Form is torpedo-like.

<p>&quot;Cartilage&quot; + &quot;Fish&quot;. Rays, skates and sharks. Has cartilaginous skeleton and are living fossils. Form is torpedo-like.</p>
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41

Placoid Scales

Old scales that serve as a thermal armor for Chondrichthyes.

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42

Lateral-line sensors

Sensitive to disturbances in water, enabling sharks to detect nearby objects by reflected waves in the water.

<p>Sensitive to disturbances in water, enabling sharks to detect nearby objects by reflected waves in the water.</p>
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43

Ampullae of Lorenzini

Respond to weak electric and magnetic fields, can be used to locate prey and geophysical location.

<p>Respond to weak electric and magnetic fields, can be used to locate prey and geophysical location.</p>
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44

Class Actinopterygii

"Rays" + "Wing". Comprises 50% of living vertebrate species. Form always has ray-fins and is bilaterally flattened.

<p>&quot;Rays&quot; + &quot;Wing&quot;. Comprises 50% of living vertebrate species. Form always has ray-fins and is bilaterally flattened.</p>
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45

Ctenoid and Cycloid Scales

Replaced heavy dermal armor (ganoid) and increased mobility and speed, improving predator avoidance and feeding efficiency.

<p>Replaced heavy dermal armor (ganoid) and increased mobility and speed, improving predator avoidance and feeding efficiency.</p>
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46

Swim Bladder

Internal gas filled organ. Allowed control over buoyancy, conserving energy. Acts as a stabilizing agent and functions as a resonation chamber that can produce and receive sound.

<p>Internal gas filled organ. Allowed control over buoyancy, conserving energy. Acts as a stabilizing agent and functions as a resonation chamber that can produce and receive sound.</p>
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47

Operculum

Provides protection to the gills and increases respiratory efficiency.

<p>Provides protection to the gills and increases respiratory efficiency.</p>
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48

Class Sarcopterygii

"Flesh" + "Wing". Includes 3 subclasses: lungfish, coelacanths and tetrapods.

<p>&quot;Flesh&quot; + &quot;Wing&quot;. Includes 3 subclasses: lungfish, coelacanths and tetrapods.</p>
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49

Subclass Dypnoi

Includes lungfish. They possess Diphycercal caudal tails, one or two lungs are modified swim bladders and they have strong, fleshy, paired lobed fins.

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50

Subclass Actinista

Oldest Known living lineage of Sarcopterygii. Morphologically similar to lungfishes.

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