Business Unit 7 - HR

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Human Resource Management

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Tags and Description

36 Terms

1

Human Resource Management

Deploying and developing people within an organization to meet its business objectives

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2

Why is HR important

Adds value to its output by:

  • Increasing labour productivity

  • Improving product quality

  • Creating new ideas

  • Providing better customer service

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3

HR Planning (Workforce Planning)

Management process of anticipating and meeting an organization’s current and future staffing needs

Looks at:

  • Historical Data/Trends

  • Sales and income levels

  • Labour turnover rates

  • Flexibility/workload of employees

  • Demographic changes

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4

5 Problems of no HR (5R)

Recruitment, Resources, Reservations, Returns, Reputation

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5

Factors that Affect HR Planning

Demographic Change, Changes in labour mobility, Immigration, Flexitime, Gig economy

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6

Demographic Change

Caused by: net birth rate, migration rate, retirement age, females in the workforce

Ageing population effects: Increased dependent population, reduced labour mobility, changes in consumption patterns, change in employment patterns

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7

Changes in Labour Mobility

The extent to which people can move to different locations and their flexibility in changing to different jobs

More mobile workers are → higher the supply of labour

Depends on: age, mobility of the job, discrimination

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8

Immigration

Contribues to production, consumption and payment of taxes.

Reasons for immigration: Pay, opportunities, seasonal factors, domestic instability, standard of living

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9

Flexitime

Requires employees to work for a core period, but the rest of the time is flexible

Benefits: improves firm image, reduces overtime, freedom and balance

Teleworking or Homeworking

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10

B/D of Homeworking/Teleworking

Benefits: Flexible hours, lower cost of technology, low absenteeism, reduced overheads

Drawbacks: Workers exceed work hours, social isolation, management is more difficult, technological breakdowns

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11

Gig Economy

Workers are short-term, flexible, and temporary contracts. Includes freelance workers/independent contractors

Benefits: greater flexibility, lower cost, workers are more in control of work balance

Drawbacks: No job security or benefits, no regular income, higher burnout rate, risk

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12

Portfolio Workers

People involved in a number of different jobs carried out simultaneously, often temporary

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13

Resistance to change in the workplace

Self interesnt, low tolerance, misinformation, different assessments of the situation

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14

Sx change approach

  1. education and communication

  2. participation and involvement

  3. facilitation and support

  4. negotiation and agreement

  5. manipulation and co-option

  6. explicit and implicit coercion

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15

Centralization

Decision-making power is kept in the hands of a few people or shared among the workforce.

Benefits: rapid decision making, better control, better sense of direction, efficiency

Drawbacks: added pressure/stress for senior staff, inflexibility, possible delays in decision making, demotivating

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Decentralization

Decision making authority is shared with others

Benefits: input from workforce, faster decision making, improved morale, improved accountability, teamwork

Drawbacks: costly, inefficiencies, greater chance of mistakes, some loss of control, communication issues

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Factors decision making depends on

Size of organization, importance of decision, level of risk, corporate ulture, management attitudes

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18

Delayering

Removing one or more structures in the hierarchy to flatten the organizational structure

Benefits: reduces cost, improves communication, encourages delegation

Drawbacks: creates anxiety, increased workload, slower decision making

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19

Matrix Structure

Flexible method of organizing employees from different departments to temporarily work together

Benefits: improved communication, maximizes skill set, cost-effective

Drawbacks: added workload, difficult to coordinate, time consuming

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20

Flat organizational chart

Exist in cultures that foster creativity and innovation

Benefits: more opportunities, better communication, cheaper, eliminates hierarchy

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21

Tall organizational chart

Traditional approach

Benefits: quicker and more effective communication in small teams, easier to control, more productive, greater promotional opportunities

Drawback: bureaucratic

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22

Types of leaders

Autocratic, Paternalistic, Democratic, Laissez-Faire, Situational

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23

Autocratic leader

Makes all the decisions and prefers not to delgate responsibility

Benefits: quick decision making, workers opinions ignored

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Paternalistic Leader

Guides employees through the consultation process and acts in the best way of their subordinates

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Democratic Leader

Involves employees in the decision making process

Benefits: better morale and job satisfaction, improved decisions
Drawbacks: delays decision making, not suitable for large workforces

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Laissez-Faire

Allow subordinates to make their own decisions and complete tasks their own ways

Benefits: higher motivation, promotes creativity

Drawbacks: delays decision making, relies heavily on teamwork and goodwill of employees, encourages slack

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Situational leadership

Depends on: CLOTS

culture, leader, organizational structure, task, subordinates

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Motivational Theorists

Taylor, Maslow, Herzberg

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29

Taylor

Employees are motivated by money, productivity is improved by setting output and efficiency targets related to pay

Division of labour and differentiated piecework

Differentiated piecework: workers are paid a standars level out output and receive overtime

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Drawbacks of Taylor

Drawbacks: ignores the non-physical contribution of workers, difficult to measure physical output (like teaching)

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Maslow

Focused on the psychological needs of workers. People need to be satisfied with their lower level needs first.

Needs: psychological needs, safety, love/belonging, esteem needs, self-actualization

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Drawbacks of Maslow

Level of needs are difficult to measure, assumes everyone is motivated in the chronological order

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33

Herzberg

Focused on the sociological and psychological aspects of work

Hygiene factors (security, pay, conditions, relationships) and motivators (achievement, advancement, personal growth, recognition)

Limitations: does not apply to low-skilled/payed jobs, some employees do not want enriched jobs

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34

Financial Rewards

Salary, wages, commission, performance related pay, profit-related pay, employee share ownership schemes, fringe payments

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Non Financial rewards

Job enrichment, job rotation, job enlargement, empowerment, purpose, teamwork

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36

Types of training

Induction, on the job, off the job

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