APUSH Cumulative Vocab

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Juan de Onate

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Juan de Onate

Spanish explorer and conquistador. He claimed New Mexico for Spain in 1598 and served as its governor until 1607.

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Iroquois Confederacy

An alliance of five northeastern Native American peoples (after 1722 six) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England.

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joint stock company

A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks (and profits) among many investors.

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Columbian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.

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Pueblo

a communal village built by natives in the southwestern United States; Spanish word for village; A native American people group found in the Southwest, involved in building cliff houses

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Sioux

Major northern Plains Indian nation that fought and eventually lost a bitter war against the U.S. Army, 1876-1877

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smallpox

The overall deadliest known disease in the history of the world. In the 20th century alone there were approximately 500,000,000 people who died of this disease. Killed off a large part of the native american population.

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maize

An early form of corn grown by Native Americans

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Pope's Rebellion

A Native American uprising in 1680 where pueblo rebels in an attempt to resist catholicism and Europeans all together destroyed every catholic church in the province and killed scores of priests and hundreds of spanish settlers.

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Hacienda

Spanish estates in the Americas that were often plantations. They often represent the gradual removal of land from peasant ownership and a type of feudalistic order where the owners would have agreements of loyalty to the capital but would retain control over the actual land. This continued even into the 20th century.

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encomienda system

It gave Spanish settlers the right to tax local Native Americans or to make them work. In exchange, these settlers were supposed to protect the Native American people and convert them to Christianity

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Maroon Community

Self-governing communities of escaped slaves common in the early modern Caribbean (Jamaica) and in coastal areas of Central and South America

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Mercantilism

the economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances, such as with gold or silver, which a government should encourage by the use of protectionism, such as tariffs.

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Triangular Trade

trade in the 18th and 19th centuries that involved shipping goods from Britain to West Africa to be exchanged for slaves, these slaves being shipped to the West Indies and exchanged for sugar, rum, and other commodities which were in turn shipped back to Britain.

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Navigation Acts

a series of laws designed to restrict England’s carrying trade to English ships, effective chiefly in the 17th and 18th centuries. The measures, originally framed to encourage the development of English shipping so that adequate auxiliary vessels would be available in wartime, became a form of trade protectionism during an era of mercantilism.

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Jamestown

town in Virginia; site of the first permanent English settlement in America in 1607

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Molasses Act

Protectionist British act that imposed a tax of six pence per gallon on imports of molasses from non-British colonies. Parliament created the act largely at the insistence of large plantation owners in the British West Indies.

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Salutary Neglect

policy of the British Crown of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, especially trade laws, on the colonies as long as British colonies remained loyal to the Crown.

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Maryland Toleration Act

first North American law enforcing religious freedom. Allowed for diverse populations of settlers in the Mid-Atlantic.

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Great Awakening

Christian religious movement that swept across the British Colonies in North America. Secular rationalism was emphasized by Protestants and evangelical churches had increased membership

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Headright system

parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.

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Barbados Slave Code (1688)

Provided legal basis for slavery in a British Atlantic territory. Allowed plantation owners to use any means necessary (with slaves) to grow crops.

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John Winthrop

Leading figure in founding the Massachusetts Bay colony. Led the first large wave of English colonists to the Americas and served as governor for the colony.

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Beaver Wars

War in which the Iroquois terrorized French settlements, beat other competing natives, and took control of the fur trade.

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Alien and Sedition Acts

Series of four laws enacted in 1798 to reduce the political power of recent immigrants

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Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments to the Constitution

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constitution

a body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which the United States is acknowledged to be governed. Ratified 1788 after failure of the Articles of Confederation.

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Northwest Ordinance

Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states

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Stamp Act

an act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents

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Proclamatin of 1763

this enacted by the British; forbid settlers from moving past the Appalachian Mountains

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Sons of Liberty

A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.

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Declaration of Independence

the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain

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Common Sense

A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation

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Shay's Rebellion

Rebellion of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.

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Federalist Papers

A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.

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Washington's Farewell Address

Final presidential speech that warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties, and to avoid sectionalism.

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Monroe Doctrine

an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers (European powers)

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Theory of Nullification

the theory that states have the right to nullify a federal law they feel is unconstitutional (Kentucky and Virginia Resolves)

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Trail of Tears

the forced removal of Cherokees and their transportation to Oklahoma

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Second Great Awakening

A religious fervor that swept the nation. It converted more than the first. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.

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Manifest Destiny

A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific. Promoted expansion

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Spoils System

the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power. Federalists though this was what Jacksonian government was like.

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Era of Good Feelings

A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.

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Log Cabin and Hard Cider Campaign

The term for the 1840 presidential campaign. Popular war hero, William Henry Harrison was the Whig candidate. He used log cabins and hard cider to portray his down-home heritage. He attacked Martin Van Buren as an aristocrat. Harrison and John Tyler won the election. (p. 199)

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American System

Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.

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The Liberator

An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.

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Free Soil Party

a political party formed in 1848 to oppose the extension of slavery into U.S. territories

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Cult of Domesticity

idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands (societal expectation)

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Homestead Act

1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.

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Sand Creek Massacre

an attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians by a regiment of Colorado militiamen on 29 November 1864 that resulted in the death of more than 200 tribal members

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Pacific Railway Act

1862 legislation to encourage the construction of a transcontinental railroad, connecting the West to industries in the Northeast (Union Pacific and Central Pacific RR)

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Plessy v Ferguson

a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal

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Union League

Reconstruction-Era African American organization that worked to educate Southern blacks about civic life, built black schools and churches, and represented African American interests before government and employers. It also campaigned on behalf of Republican candidates and recruited local militias to protect blacks from white intimidation.

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Freedman's Bureau

provided food, clothing, jobs, medical care, schools for former slaves and the poor whites

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Jim Crow Laws

Laws that limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights

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Copperheads

A group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War

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Dred Scott v. Sanford

Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens

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Kansas-Nebraska Act

a law that allowed voters in Kansas and Nebraska to choose whether to allow slavery

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Black Faced Minstrel Shows

American form of entertainment developed in the early 19th century. Each show consisted of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music performances that mocked people specifically of African descent.

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Underground Railroad

A system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North

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Sierra Club

America's oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization founded in 1892 in San Fransisco, Cali first President was John Muir group was pushed by the wealthy bc they wanted to conserve the nature (despite all the land the already own and "corrupted") for their later generations

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62
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Sherman Antitrust Act

First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions

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63
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Pullman Strike (1893-4)

A staged walkout strike by railroad workers upset by drastic wage cuts. The strike was led by socialist Eugene Debs but not supported by the American Federation of Labor. Eventually President Grover Cleveland intervened because it was interfering with mail delivery and federal troops forced an end to the strike. The strike highlighted both divisions within labor and the government's continuing willingness to use armed force to combat work stoppages.

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64
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Dawes Act

1887 law which gave all Native American males 160 acres to farm and also set up schools to make Native American children more like other Americans

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Bonanza Farms

Large scale farms often over 50,000 acres, where farmers set up companies to operate

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66
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Vaudeville

A type of inexpensive variety show that first appeared in the 1870s, often consisting of comic sketches, song-and-dance routines, and magic acts

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67
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tenement

A building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety; built for common wage workers

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68
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The Pendleton Act

provided that federal government jobs be awarded on the basis of merit and that government employees be selected through competitive exams. The act also made it unlawful to fire or demote for political reasons employees who were covered by the law.

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69
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Tammany Hall

a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism

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70
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Cross of Gold Speech

An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.

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71
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Interstate Commerce Act

Established the ICC - monitors and regulates the business operation of carriers transporting rail goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices

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Samuel Gompers

He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor, a labor union. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.

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National Women Suffrage Association (NWSA)

Organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, for women to get a vote. (In 1869 women got vote in Wyoming and 1920 women could vote)

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74
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Sierra Club

America's oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization founded in 1892 in San Fransisco, Cali first President was John Muir group was pushed by the wealthy bc they wanted to conserve the nature (despite all the land the already own and "corrupted") for their later generations

New cards
75
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Sherman Antitrust Act

First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions

New cards
76
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Pullman Strike (1893-4)

A staged walkout strike by railroad workers upset by drastic wage cuts. The strike was led by socialist Eugene Debs but not supported by the American Federation of Labor. Eventually President Grover Cleveland intervened because it was interfering with mail delivery and federal troops forced an end to the strike. The strike highlighted both divisions within labor and the government's continuing willingness to use armed force to combat work stoppages.

New cards
77
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Dawes Act

1887 law which gave all Native American males 160 acres to farm and also set up schools to make Native American children more like other Americans

New cards
78
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Bonanza Farms

Large scale farms often over 50,000 acres, where farmers set up companies to operate

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79
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Vaudeville

A type of inexpensive variety show that first appeared in the 1870s, often consisting of comic sketches, song-and-dance routines, and magic acts

New cards
80
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tenement

A building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety; built for common wage workers

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81
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The Pendleton Act

provided that federal government jobs be awarded on the basis of merit and that government employees be selected through competitive exams. The act also made it unlawful to fire or demote for political reasons employees who were covered by the law.

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82
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Tammany Hall

a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism

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83
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Cross of Gold Speech

An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.

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84
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Interstate Commerce Act

Established the ICC - monitors and regulates the business operation of carriers transporting rail goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices

New cards

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