Neuroscience

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Neurons

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31 Terms

1

Neurons

information carrying cells

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2

Glia Cells

maintain chemical environment in neurons

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3

Myelin

A white, fatty, waxy coating to protect the neuron and speed up the neural signal it sends

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4

Dendrites

receives incoming signals from other neurons

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5

Axon

carries signals away from cell body

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6

Myelin Sheath

myelin covered segments of the axon

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7

Axon Bulb

at the end of each axon, contains storage pouches

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8

Neurotransmitters

chemical messengers

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9

Synapse

the junction between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle

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10

Presynaptic Neuron

first neuron that does not touch the second (sender)

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11

Postsynaptic Neuron

second neuron receiving information

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12

Synaptic Gap

measurable distance between pre and postsynaptic neurons

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13

Sodium (Na+) and Potassium (K)

Important for sending signals

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14

Resting Potential

difference that exists when neuron is at rest

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15

Action Potential

signal that gets sent to complete an action

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16

Threshold of Excitation

potential difference at which a neuron will fire an action potential

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17

All-or-None Law

if stimuli were to increase, it wouldn't affect the response

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18

Refractory Period

neuron returns to resting potential, another action potential cannot happen

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19

Synaptic Transmission

action potential reaches axon bulb releasing neurotransmitters

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20

Excitation

neurotransmitter makes postsynaptic cell MORE likely to fire action potential

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21

Inhibition

neurotransmitter makes postsynaptic cell LESS likely to fire action potential

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22

Enzymes

chemical that breaks down molecules + neurotransmitters

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23

Central Nervous System

the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord

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24

Nervous System

interconnected network of all neurons in the body

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25

Peripheral Nervous System

division of the nervous system containing all the nerves that lie outside of the CNS

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26

Sensory Neuron

a neuron conducting impulses INWARDS to the brain or spinal cord

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27

Motor Neuron

a neuron conducting impulses OUTWARDS from the brain or spinal cord

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28

Somatic Nervous System

neurons that control out muscles for voluntary actions

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29

Automatic Nervous System

controls smooth muscles of internal organs, heart, and glands

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30

Parasympathetic

Operates under calm conditions

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31

Sympathetic

Activates under conditions of threat or stress to protect us from danger

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