Chapter 15 (HL only): IT Systems in Organizations

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104 Terms

1

acceptance testing

Testing performed by the client and users as part of the handover process.

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adaptive maintenance

Maintenance that changes software to make it work with a new software environment.

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3

agile development

Development method that focuses on creating small, working parts of a project at regular intervals.

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4

alpha testing

Initial testing of an IT system.

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5

analyst

In project development, person who documents the current system, finding its problems and areas for improvement

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6

attributes

Component of an Entity Relationship Diagram.

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7

beta tester

Person who attempts to find bugs in software before it is released to customers.

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8

beta testing

Testing of an IT system once all features have been added and only bugs need to be worked out.

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9

bug tracking system

Used to track and manage bugs in a piece of software.

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10

bugs

Errors in a computer program or system, hopefully found during testing.

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11

business case

Analysis of the benefits and problems of a proposed IT project.

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12

Capability Maturity Model Integration

Quality assurance method that describes an organisation's level of maturity.

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13

cardinality

Property of a relationship in an Entity Relationship Diagram.

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14

changeover

Moving from an old system to a new IT system.

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15

client

Person or organisation who commissions an IT project.

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16

CMMI

Quality assurance method that describes an organisation's level of maturity.

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17

constraints

Limitations within which an IT system must work.

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18

corrective maintenance

Maintenance that fixes bugs in software.

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19

CP

Longest (slowest) path through a project's development, as determined by using a PERT chart.

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20

Critical Path

Longest (slowest) path through a project's development, as determined by using a PERT chart.

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21

Custom / bespoke software

Software created specific for an individual or organisation.

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22

data collection

Used to find information about an existing system during the development of a new system.

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23

Data Flow Diagram

Shows processes in a system and the flows of data between them.

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24

data structure

The way the data within an IT system is organised and related.

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25

database administrator

The person in an organisation who is responsible for setting up, maintaining, and monitoring the organisation's database(s).

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26

delivery

Installing a new IT system at the client's premises.

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27

deployment

Stage in the SDLC where the system is deployed at the client's site.

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development manager

In project development, person who oversees programmers as they create the system specified in the design.

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29

DFD

Shows processes in a system and the flows of data between them.

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30

direct changeover

Immediate removal of an old system and complete replacement with a new IT system.

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31

emulator

A computer program which simulates another type of computer, so that it can run programs designed for it.

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32

end-user

Person who will use an IT project one it is finished.

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33

entities

Component of an Entity Relationship Diagram.

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34

entity relationship diagram

Shows the items of data stored in a system and the relationships between them.

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35

ERD

Shows the items of data stored in a system and the relationships between them.

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36

feasibility study

Examination of a proposed system to see if its creation is possible.

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37

Frequently Asked Questions

A list of common problems that users experience, and their answers.

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38

functional requirements

Specific features and functions that a proposed IT system must have.

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39

Gantt chart

Used to chart the stages of a planned IT project and the people responsible for each stage.

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40

handover

Point at which the developers of a system formally pass it to the client.

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41

IDE

Set of programs used by system developers to create IT systems.

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42

implementation

Stage in the SDLC where the system is created (programmed).

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43

incident escalation

Moving a problem with an IT project to a higher level if it cannot be solved.

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44

Incident management system

Used to keep track of problems and difficulties encountered in an IT system.

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45

incident tracking system

Used to keep track of problems and difficulties encountered in an IT system.

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46

information system (IS) managers

Person responsible for all IT purchases, deployments, and systems within an organisation.

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47

installation

Installing a new IT system at the client's premises.

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48

Integrated Development Environment

Set of programs used by system developers to create IT systems.

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49

internal support

Support for an IT system provided within an organisation.

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50

legacy system

An old, out of date IT system which is still used because it is essential to an organisation.

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51

load testing

Testing of an IT system with the amount of work it can be expected to process in real world conditions.

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52

maintenance

Alterations made to a system after it has been formally handed over.

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53

milestones

Key points during project development, such as the completion of a stage.

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54

network manager

The person responsible for the installation, configuration, and monitoring of an organisation's network.

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55

non-functional requirements

Conditions that a proposed IT system must meet, such as working on certain hardware or giving results within a certain time.

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56

off-the-shelf software

Software which is widely available and can be bought by anybody.

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57

online lessons

A form of training delivered online.

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58

organisational IT policies

Policies governing the appropriate use of IT, data integrity, security procedures, and other aspects of IT use with an organisation.

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59

outputs

During analysis, a list of the results that a system must produce.

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60

parallel running

Running the old system and the new system side by side.

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61

perfective maintenance

Maintenance that changes software to incorporate new user requirements (or changed requirements).

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62

PERT chart

Charting system to show the inter-dependencies in projects.

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phase out

Gradually removing an old IT system from use.

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phased changeover

One part of an organisation switches to a new IT system to test it, while others remain using the old system.

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65

PMBoK

Project Management Body of Knowledge. A project management methodology.

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preventative maintenance

Maintenance that changes software to avoid possible future problems.

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67

PRINCE2

PRojects IN Controlled Environments 2. A project management methodology.

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68

processes

During analysis, a list of the procedures a system must implement.

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69

procurement

The act of acquiring the necessary items (software, hardware, staff) to develop an IT system.

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70

programmer

A person who writes computer programs by following a design document.

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71

project goals

Clear statement of the intentions of a proposed IT project.

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72

project initiation document

Document used in PRINCE2 to describe the key features of an IT project.

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73

project management methodology

Systems and techniques designed to encourage successful projects and avoid project failure.

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project management software

Software to help plan, manage, and guide the process of IT project development.

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project manager

Person with overall responsibility for an IT project.

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project plan

Clear definition of the goals, scope, and schedule of a proposed IT project.

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77

prototype interface

Early version of a user interface to get feedback about its effectiveness.

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prototypes

An early version of a project, designed to get feedback from the client and users.

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quality assurance methods

In project development, used to ensure the whole development team are following standardised best practises.

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80

quality control processes

Processes to ensure code produced by programmers followed accepted best practices.

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81

regression testing

Testing to ensuring changes to an IT system did not break any previously working functionality.

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82

relationships

The links between separate items of data.

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83

requirements specification

Clear list of the functional and non-functional requirements for a proposed IT project.

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84

scope

Clear definition of the boundaries of an IT project.

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85

SDLC

The stages in the life time of an IT system, from its first proposal, through its design and creation, to its eventual phasing out.

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86

software testers

People who perform alpha, beta, and acceptance testing.

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87

source code

Instructions that make up the software, entered by the programmer using a programming language.

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88

SSADM

Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method. A project management methodology.

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89

support

Staff who help users with problems they encounter while using an IT system.

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90

support staff

Staff who train users and help them with problems as they occur

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91

SWOT

Analysis method sometimes used when creating a business case.

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92

system context diagram

High level DFD of a system.

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93

System development lifecycle

The stages in the life time of an IT system, from its first proposal, through its design and creation, to its eventual phasing out.

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94

technical documentation

Documentation intended for programmers and developers of an IT system.

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95

test plan

List of all tests and test data that should be tried with a system.

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96

training

Ensuring that users will be able to work with a new IT system.

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97

tutorial

A document which explains how to perform key tasks, step by step.

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98

user acceptance testing

Tests performed by a client before formally accepting an IT system from the developers.

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99

user acceptance testing

Testing performed by the client and users as part of the handover process.

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100

user documentation

Documentation intended for users of an IT system, helping them understand and use it.

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