MI Quiz 1.4, 2.1, 2.2

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case-control study

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58 Terms

1

case-control study

epidemiologic study where those with disease (case) are compared to those without disease (control)

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2

cohort study

epidemiological study where exposed individuals and non-exposed individuals are followed over time to determine incidence of disease

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3

DNA ligase

A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication and recombinant DNA techniques

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4

epidemic

a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time.

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5

epidemiology

the branch of medicine that deals with the incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health.

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6

herd immunity

The resistance of a group to an attack by a disease to which a large proportion of the members of the group are immune

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7

inoculation

The introduction of a pathogen or antigen into a living organism to stimulate the production of antibodies.

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8

plasmid

A small ring of DNA in the cytoplasm that carries accessory genes separate from those of the bacterial chromosome

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9

recombinant DNA

DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources

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10

restriction enzyme

degradative enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides

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11

vaccination

An procedure that produces a mild form of a disease in order to help build up an immunity to it.

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12

vaccine

A harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that stimulates a host's immune system to mount defenses against the pathogen

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13

Why do different generations have different diseases?

vaccine and medical advancements over time

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14

Live attenuated vaccines

Live pathogen, but weakened. Injected to trigger immune response

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15

Messenger RNA vaccines

Make proteins to trigger an immune response without injecting viral material (COVID-Moderna, Pfizer)

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16

polysaccharide vaccines

target bacteria encased in sugar

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17

conjugate vaccines

sugar sticks to protein for better response

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18

recombinant vaccines

use another organism to make vaccine antigen

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19

inactivated vaccines

Made up of dead virus particles, it cannot reproduce, but still provokes a response by the immune system.

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20

toxoid vaccines

uses the toxin (part of germ) that causes disease to build immunity rather than the whole germ

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21

Viral vector vaccines

use vectors (harmless version of a virus) to expose immune system to antigens in a virus to build immunity

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22

epidemiologist

a specialist in the study of outbreaks of disease within a population group

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23

amniocentesis

prenatal test involving a needle to remove a small amount of the amniotic fluid surrounding the developing fetus to check for abnormalities for mothers over age 35

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24

anneal

To be capable of combining with complementary nucleic acid by a process of heating and cooling

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25

carrier screening

Indiscriminate examination of members of a population to detect heterozygotes for serious disorders

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26

chorionic villus sampling

sampling of placental tissues for prenatal diagnosis of potential genetic defects

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27

denaturation

In DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix.

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28

gene

A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA

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29

genetic counseling

A process of communication that deals with the occurrence or risk that a genetic disorder will occur in a family

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30

genetic testing

The use of methods to determine if someone has a genetic disorder, will develop one, or is a carrier

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31

genome

All the genetic information in an organism; all of an organism's chromosomes.

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32

genotype

genetic makeup of an organism

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33

karyotype

A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.

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34

newborn screening

The analysis of a neonate's blood for metabolic or genetic disorders to prevent mental retardation, disability or death

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35

phenotype

An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.

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36

polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

A technique that involves copying short pieces of DNA and then making millions of copies in a short period of time

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37

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)

In assisted reproductive technology, the determination of genetic abnormalities in the embryo before it is transferred to the uterus

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38

primer

A short piece of DNA or RNA that is complementary to a section of template strand and acts as an attachment and starting point for the synthesis strand during DNA replication

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39

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)

One base-pair variation in the genome sequence

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40

Supernatant

The (usually) clear liquid left behind after a precipitate has been spun down to the bottom of a vessel by centrifugation

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41

Taq polymerase

A DNA synthesis enzyme that can withstand the high temperatures of PCR

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42

Thermal cycler

An instrument that automatically cycles through different temperatures used to complete PCR reactions

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43

Ultrasonography

A noninvasive technique involving the formation of a two-dimensional image used for the examination and measurement of internal body structures and the detection of bodily abnormalities

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44

single gene disorders

genetic disorders caused by a single recessive gene or mutation (ex: Cystic Fibrosis and Huntington's Disease)

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45

multifactoral disorders

A disease that results from not just inherited factors but environmental factors as well. (ex: Alzheimer's)

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46

chromosomal disorders

missing or abnormal number of chromosomes (Down Syndrome and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy)

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47

mitochondrial disorders

caused by mutations in non-chromosomal DNA which is passed from mother to child (ex: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy)

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48

single gene disorders

Cystic Fibrosis and Huntington’s Disease are examples of what type of disorders?

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49

multifactoral disorders

Alzheimer’s is an example of what type of disorder?

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50

chromosomal disorders

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Down Syndrome are examples of what type of disorders?

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51

mitochondrial disorders

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy is an example of what type of disorder?

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52

Gene therapy

The alteration of the genes of a person afflicted with a genetic disease

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53

gene enhancement

Genetic engineering designed to improve on the normal genetic constitution of an individual.

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54

In Vitro Fertilization

The most common assisted reproduction procedure, in which a woman's eggs are mixed with sperm in culture dishes and then carefully inserted into a woman's uterus.

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55

sex selection

Methods used to predetermine or diagnose the sex of an embryo for the purpose of selecting only those embryos of a particular sex for transplanting to the uterus of a woman

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56

Vector

An agent (as a plasmid or virus) that contains or carries modified genetic material and can be used to introduce extra genes into the genome of an organism

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57

reproductive cloning

Using a somatic or body cell from a multicellular organism to make one or more genetically identical individuals

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58

therapeutic cloning

The production of embryonic stem cells for use in replacing or repairing damaged tissues or organs

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