Studied by 18 people

5.0(1)

get a hint

hint

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

1

Wavelength

Distance between two points on a wave. The unit of measurement is METERS (but can be measured in cm and nm)

New cards

2

Frequency

Number of complete waves that pass a point each second. The unit of measurement is Hz (1/s)/

New cards

3

Speed of light = wavelength x frequency

c = Ī»v

New cards

4

Inverse

Frequency and wavelength are what proportion?

New cards

5

Long wavelength

Low energy and frequency gives what type of wavelength?

New cards

6

Short Wavelegth

High energy and frequency gives what type of wavelength?

New cards

7

Speed of light constant

3.00 x 10^8 m/s

New cards

8

Wavelength and frequency

Each type of energy has a different what?

New cards

9

Energy = Planck's constant x frequency

E = hv

New cards

10

Planck's constant

6.626 x 10^-34 J/s

New cards

11

Photoelectric effect

When light shines on a metal surface causes the electrons to be ejected from the metal.

New cards

12

Photons

Einstein said that light travels in energy packets or what?

New cards

13

Planck's theory

Energy absorbed/released from atoms in certain minimum amounts (quanta). This is assumed.

New cards

14

Electromagnetic Spectrum

New cards

15

Continuous Spectrum

Spectrums from light containing all wavelengths.

New cards

16

Line Spectrum

A spectrum containing radiation of only specific wavelengths.

New cards

17

Ground state

The lowest energy state of an atom (n=1)

New cards

18

Excited state

When the electron is in a higher energy level.

New cards

19

Orbitals

The allowed wave functions of the hydrogen atom.

New cards

20

Electron configuration

A simple way of writing down the locations of all of the electrons in an atom. It describes the distance, energy, and size of orbitals.

New cards

21

Principal quantum number (n)

Represents the distance from the nucleus. Energy levels. (1-7)

New cards

22

Angular quantum number (l)

Represents the shape of the orbital. Sublevels. (0=s, 1=p, 2=d, 3=f).

New cards

23

Magnetic quantum number (ml)

Represents the orientation in space. Axis orientation. (-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3)

New cards

24

Spin quantum number (Ms)

Represents the electron spin. Arrow direction. (+1/2 or -1/2).

New cards

25

Aufbau Principle

Electrons fill the orbitals in order of increasing energy.

New cards

26

Spinning change.

What produces a magnetic field?

New cards

27

Diamagnetic

Occurs when all e- are paired.

New cards

28

Paramagnetic

Has one or more unpaired e-.

New cards

29

Pauli Exclusion Principle

Two electrons occupying the same orbital must have opposite spins.

New cards

30

Hund's Rule

Single electrons with the same spin will occupy each orbital with equal energy before pairing.

New cards

31

Orbital Notation

This image represents?

New cards

32

Electron Configuration

This image represents?

New cards

33

Noble Gas Notation

This image represents?

New cards

34

Dimitri Mendeleev

The first scientist to create a periodic table of the elements in order of increasing atomic mass.

New cards

35

Henry Mosley

Rearranged the periodic table to be in order of increasing atomic number.

New cards

36

Periodic Law

When arranged by increasing atomic number, the chemical elements display a regular and repeating pattern of chemical and physical properties.

New cards

37

Nanometer (nm)

10^-9

New cards

38

Megameter (Mm)

10^6

New cards

39

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

It is impossible for us to simultaneously know both the exact momentum and location. It can only discuss the probability of an electron's position in space.

New cards

40

Higher energy

Lower energy further from nucleus equals what?

New cards

41

De Brogile

Suggested that electrons could behave as waves with a characteristic wavelength.

New cards

42

Effective nuclear charge

The attractive force felt from the nucleus by electrons It depends on the distance from the nucleus and the number of inner electrons. (Result of Coulomb's law)

New cards

43

Down a group

Increase of shielding occurs ONLY when?

New cards

44

Shielding effect

The decrease in attraction between an electron and the nucleus of an atom.

-Atomic radius increases.

-Ionization Energy decreases.

-Electronegativity decreases.

-Zeff (effective nuclear charge) decreases.

-Harder to remove electrons.

New cards

45

Atomic Radius

Half the distance between the nuclei in covalently bonded atoms.

-Decreases left to right

-Increases downward.

New cards

46

Ionization Energy

The energy required to remove electrons.

-Increases left to right.

-Decreases downward.

New cards

47

Electronegativity

Measure of an atom's bond to another atom.

-Increases left to right.

-Decreases downward.

New cards

48

Electron Affinity

The energy change that results in the addition of electrons

-Increases left to right.

-Decreases downward.

New cards

49

The force of attraction of the nucleus is greater than the ground state.

Why is there a huge jump between n=1 and n=2?

New cards

50

Isoelectronic

When a group of ions have the same number of electrons.

New cards

51

Metallic charcter

An element that has the physical and chemical properties of metals.

-Decreases left to right.

-Increases downward.

New cards

52

The attraction of an extra proton.

The distance from the S to P orbital out weighs what?

New cards

53

Repulsion of paired electrons.

As the e- moves to enter an orbital already having 1e- they

pair with opposite spins so the IE drops.

-Outweighs the increased attraction from the nucleus so less energy to remove the e-.

New cards

54

Electron givers

The most reactive metals are the largest since they are the best what?

New cards

55

Electron takers

The most reactive nonmetals are the smallest ones, the best what?

New cards

56

Paramagnetism

The magnetic state of an atom with one or more unpaired electrons.

New cards

57

Diamagnetism

The magnetic state of an atom with paired electrons with no magnetic attraction.

New cards

58

Coulombās Law

The strength of the interaction between two electrical charges depends on the magnitudes of the charges and on the distance between them.

New cards