Studied by 3 people

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1

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one could have foreseen it

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2

critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and asses conclusions

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3

theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principals that organizes observations and predicts behaviors/events

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4

hypothesis

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

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5

operational definition

a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as â€śwhat an intelligence test measures.â€ť

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6

replication

repeating the essence of a research study, usually w different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

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7

case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in dept to reveal universal principals

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8

naturalistic observation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate/control the situation

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9

survey

a technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative random sample of the group

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10

population

all cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn

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11

random sample

a sample that fairly represents a population bc each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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12

correlation

a measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary together, and thus of how well either predicts the other

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13

correlation coefficient

a statistical index of the relationship between two things

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14

scatter plot

a graphed cluster of dots, each one of which reps the values of 2 variables, the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter=high correlation)

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15

CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL

CAUSATION!!!!!!

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16

experiment

a research method in which an investigator manipulates 1+ factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent var). by random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors

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17

experimental group

in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

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18

control group

in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

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19

random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance- minimizes preexisting differences between those assigned to diff groups

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20

double blind procedure

an experiment where both the research participants and staff dont know whether the research participants have received the treatment or the placebo

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21

placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the inert substance/condition, which the recipient believes is an active agent

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22

independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the var whose effect is being studied

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23

confounding variable

a factor other than the independent var that might produce an effect

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24

dependent variable

the outcome factor; the var that may change in response to manipulations of the independent var

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25

research method: descriptive

observes and records behavior; but no control over variables

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26

research method: correlational

to detect naturally occurring relationships; to asses how well one var predicts another (doesnt specify cause and effect)

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27

research method: experimental

to explore cause and effect (sometimes not feasible; results may not generalize in other contexts; not ethical to manipulate some vars)

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28

mode

the most frequently occurring scores in a distribution

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29

mean

the arithmetic average of a distribution

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30

median

the middle score in a distribution; half the scores above it and half below

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31

range

the different between the highest and the lowest scores in a distribution

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32

standard deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

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33

normal curve

a symmetrical, bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data

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34

statistical significance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

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35

culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions transferred by a group of people and transmitted generation to generation

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36

informed consent

an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether or not they want to participate

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37

debriefing

the post experimental explanation of a study, of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions to whoever participated

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