Comparative Vocab Quiz (10/31 - 11/1)

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rule of law

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30 Terms

1

rule of law

principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern

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2

normative statements

claims that attempt to prescribe how the world should be

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3

empirical statements

Factual statements that can be proven true or false.

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4

presidential system

a system of government in which the legislative and executive branches operate independently of each other; single executive

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5

parliamentary system

A system of government in which the legislature selects the prime minister or president; dual executive (w/ monarch)

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6

semi-presidential system

An executive system that divides power between two strong executives, a president and a prime minister

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7

First Past the Post (FPTP)

An SMD system in which the candidate with a plurality of votes wins

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8

proportional representation

An election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote.

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9

corporatism

A method of co-optation whereby authoritarian systems create or sanction a limited number of organizations to represent the interests of the public and restrict those not set up or approved by the state.

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10

pluralism

A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.

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11

legitimacy

Political authority conferred by law or by a state or national constitution

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12

federal system

A government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments

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13

unitary system

A government that gives all key powers to the national or central government

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14

devolution

the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states

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15

liberal democracy

A political system that promotes participation, competition, and liberty and emphasizes individual freedom and civil rights.

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16

illiberal democracy

A procedural democracy, with elections, but without real competition, and lacking some civil rights and liberties.

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17

authoritarian

A government in which one leader or group of people holds absolute power.

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18

neoliberalism

A strategy for economic development that calls for free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade, and minimal government intervention in the economy.

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19

populism

the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite

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20

socialism

a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.

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21

fascism

A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition

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22

individualism

giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications

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23

communism

A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.

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24

regime

(n.) a government in power; a form or system of rule or management; a period of rule

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25

government

The institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies

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26

political socialization

the process by which people gain their political attitudes and opinions

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27

civil rights

the rights of citizens to political and social freedom and equality.

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28

civil liberties

Constitutional freedoms guaranteed to all citizens

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29

import substitution industrialization

an economic system that attempts to strengthen a country's industrial power by restricting foreign imports.

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30

austerity

government policies meant to save money

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