online quiz #2

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trait approach

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1

trait approach

  • personality traits are stable over time

  • personality can change

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2

personality traits

degree to which a person is shy, creative, friendly, etc and is fairly consistent from year to year and even over decades

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3

rank-order change vs. stability

people tend to maintain in the way in which they are different from other people of the same age

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4

mean-level change vs. stability

at the mean level you can see that there is change

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5

change, maintain

As we grow older our personality ________ but relative to other people we ________ our ranks.

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6

personality development

change in the mean level of a personality trait over time

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7

ego development

ability to deal with the social and physical world and to think for oneself when making moral decisions

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8

cohort effects

people of different ages may differ because they grew up in different social and physical environments

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9

longitudinal studies

  • same people are repeatedly measured over the years

  • better method for studying development

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10

temperament

the "personality" of a very young, pre-verbal child

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11

temperament

__________ is partially determined by genetics.

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12

heterotypic continuity

the reflection of consistency of fundamental differences in personality that changes with age

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13

Physical factors

________ ________ affect the experiences people have and are consistent throughout life.

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14

Environmental factors

_______ _______ affect how people think, feel, and behave.

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15

Birth order

_____ _____ IS NOT responsible for rank-order stability or personal differences among people.

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16

early adverse experience

  • rejection by parents predicts difficulty forming relationships

  • being bullied predicts anxiety, paranoid thoughts, disorganized thinking

  • stress during childhood from poverty or maltreatment predicts stronger emotional reactions to daily stress

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17

positive adverse experience

  • more educated parents have adult children who are more open, extraverted, and emotionally stable

  • cognitive stimulating activities, physical comfort, and present father predicts higher self-esteem

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18

person-environment transactions

people tend to respond to, seek out, and create environments that are compatible with and magnify personality traits

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19

active person-environment transaction

people seek out situations that are compatible with their personalities or avoid situations that they perceive as incompatible

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20

reactive person-environment transaction

people with different personalities react differently to the same situations

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21

evocative person-environment transaction

people do not choose their environment they change them

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22

psychological maturity

behavioral consistency for traits that help one fulfill adult roles

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23

cumulative continuity principle

personality becomes stable with age

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24

maturity principle

people become better at dealing with the demands of life with age

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25

plasticity principle

personality can change at any time but it may be difficult

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26

role continuity principle

taking on a role can lead to consistency over time

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27

identity development principle

consistency from self-view

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28

social investment principle

changing social roles can cause personality change

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29

corresponsive principle

person-environment transactions can cause personality traits to remain consistent even magnify over time

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30

causes of development

  • intelligence and linguistic ability increase steadily throughout childhood and early adolescence

  • hormone levels change throughout childhood

  • different social roles throughout different stages of life

  • life demands different things at different stages of life so conscientiousness fluctuates

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31

social clock

the traditional expectations of society for when a person is expected to have achieved certain goals

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32

three

Every individual develops ______ aspects of identity one on top of the other.

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33

actor

an individual develops the skills, traits, and roles that will allow one to begin to take place in society

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34

agent

a person who is guided by goals and values

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35

author

when one can tell their life story

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36

psychotherapy

_____________ can produce long term behavioral changes.

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37

conditions for personality change

  1. person must think that changing some aspect of personality is desirable and change is possible

  2. person must follow up by beginning to change the relevant behaviors one by one

  3. over time changed behaviors will become habitual

  4. may find that those traits have stabilized higher than before

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38

biological approach

personality traits reflect physiological differences, are strongly influenced by genetics, and are rooted in evolutionary history

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39

regions, circuits, networks

______, _______, and _______ in the brain are associated with particular aspects of personality and social behavior.

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40

neuroscience

studies people with specific brain damage

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41

Phineas Gage

  • a dynamite explosion sent a 3ft rod through his left cheek into the frontal lobes of his brain

  • caused an inability to emotionally react to decision making

  • frontal lobes control impulsivity and self control

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42

pruning

the neural connections that don't get used become disconnected due to the conditioning of the environment we are in

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43

transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

uses rapidly changing magnetic fields to temporarily "knock out" areas of brain activity

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44

electroncenphalography (EEG)

electrodes are placed on the scalp to pick up electrical signals generated by the brain activity underneath

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45

magnetoencephalography (MEG)

uses delicate sensors to direct magnetic indication of brain activity

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46

positron emission tomography (PET scans)

creates map of the brain activity by following the location of harmless radioactive transfer injected into the bloodstream

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47

functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

monitors magnetic pulses generated by oxygen in the bloodstream where the brain is most active in a given moment

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48

frontal lobe

  • part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying directly behind the forehead

  • the ability to plan ahead, anticipate consequences, and for aspects of emotional experiences

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49

amygdala

  • an almond-shaped neural structure in the anterior part of the temporal lobe of the cerebrum

  • links perceptions and thoughts with emotional meaning

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50

anterior cingulate

  • important for experiencing normal emotions inhibited by the amygdala

  • controlling emotional responses and behavior impulses

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51

posterior cingulate

important for processing information about time and space in reacting rapidly to stressful situations

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52

hypothalamus

secretes several hormones

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53

hippocampus

processes memories

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54

thalamus

regulates arousal

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55

neurotransmitters

critical for communication between neurons

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56

dopamine

High levels of _______ lead to exploratory behavior, positive emotion, and responsiveness to rewards.

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57

serotonin

Low levels of _______ lead to depression, anxiety, and obsessive worrying.

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58

hormones

biological chemicals that affect the entire body

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59

testosterone

High levels of _______ are associated with dominance, aggression, and competitiveness, and increased violent crime.

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60

cortisol

Chronically high ______ leads to anxiety and depression

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61

cortisol

Chronically low _______ leads to failure to respond to danger.

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62

oxytocin

  • mother-child bonding

  • romantic attachment and sexual response

  • decrease fearfulness

  • increases perceptions of trustworthiness and attractions in others

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63

cognition, emotion

__________ and __________ are extremely intertwined.

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64

persistance

the ability to complete a task in the face of obstacles and in the absence of immediate rewards

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65

c-system

involved in effortless, reflective thinking about self and others

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66

x-system

involved in effortless, reflective social thought

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67

behavioral genetics

addresses how personality traits that differ among individuals are passed from parent to child and shared by biological relatives

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68

eugenics

belief that humanity could be improved through selective breeding

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69

heritability coefficient

percentage of the variance of a trait in the population that can be attributed to variance in genes

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70

heritability

examines how phenotypes may be attributed to variation in genotypes

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71

Turkheimer's First Law

"everything is heritable" all traits vary

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72

What does heritability tell you?

  • genes matter

  • insight into effects to the environment

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73

What does heritability not tell you?

  • does not solve the nature vs. nurture puzzle

  • does not explain how genes affect personality

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74

How does the environment interact with genes?

  • learning: neural circuits built by genes

  • epigenetics: turns genes on or off

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75

gene-environment interactions

the genotype only provides the design so it affects the behavioral phenotype indirectly by influencing biological structure and physiology as they develop within an environment

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76

evolutionary approach

assumes that human behavioral patterns developed because they were helpful or necessary for survival in the evolutionary history of the species

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77

altruism

a tendency to aid and protect other people

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78

inclusive fitness

protecting those around you to ensure the survival of your own genes

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79

self-esteem

Feelings of -__ evolved to monitor the degree to which a person is accepted by others.

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80

psychodynamic approach

assumes that personality reflects the unique ways in which each person has resolved

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81

free association

instructing the patient to say whatever came to mind

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82

psychological determinism

biologically based drives creates needs, wishes, and fears that determine behavior

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83

internal structure

made of parts that can function independently and conflict with each other

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84

id

all drives and urges

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85

ego

constrains the id to reality

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86

super-ego

internalized values

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87

compromise formation

the ego's main hob is to find a middle course between the competing demands of morality, motivation, and practicality and among the many things a person wants at the same time

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88

dreams

Freud said "wishes suppressed during the day assert themselves in ______".

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89

defense mechanism

resolve conflict and reduce anxiety

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90

repression

unpleasant thoughts and feelings are pushed out of awareness

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91

denial

convincing yourself that an unpleasant or traumatic event did not or will not occur

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92

displacement

threatening impulse/desire is redirected elsewhere

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93

rationalization

generating logical reasons for outcomes that otherwise would not be acceptable

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94

reaction formation

to block an unacceptable impulse the exact opposite behaviors/desires are displayed

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95

projection

projecting one's own unacceptable qualities onto others

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96

sublimination

convert unacceptable desire into acceptable behavior

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97

experiences

Early _________ shape adult personality development.

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98

psychosexual development

how life, energy, and libido becomes invested and then redirected over an individuals early years

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99

secondary process thinking

the conscious part of the ego that thinks

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100

primary process thinking

the way the unconscious mind operates and how the id is said to operate

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