Exams 1+2, Big Quizzes 1+2

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Which one of the follwoing scenarios is the best example of Homeostasis? a. Water temperature changes rapidly when exposed to direct sunlight b. Offspring have the same genetic material of the two parents, half from each parent c. During heavy exercise you blood pH may decrease slightly, from 7.4 to 7.3 d. Body temperature is controlled precisely at 98.6 F at all times

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Which one of the follwoing scenarios is the best example of Homeostasis? a. Water temperature changes rapidly when exposed to direct sunlight b. Offspring have the same genetic material of the two parents, half from each parent c. During heavy exercise you blood pH may decrease slightly, from 7.4 to 7.3 d. Body temperature is controlled precisely at 98.6 F at all times

c. During heavy exercise you blood pH may decrease slightly, from 7.4 to 7.3

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Which one of the following shows the correct classifications levels, from more inclusive (has more organisms) to less inclusive (has less organisms)? a. Order - Family - Phylum b.. Kingdom - Domain - Phylum c. Family - Genus - Class d. Phylum - Family - Order e. Class - Order - Family

e. Class - Order - Family

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The exoskeleton of insects is composed of a. calcium carbonate b. sulfhydryl functional groups c. cellulose d. chitin e. tertiary prolylpeptides

d. chitin

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You are exercising. Which polysaccharide would your body use for energy? a. glycogen b. amylose c. amylopectin d. monounsaturated triglyceride e. tertiary polypeptides

a. glycogen

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an atom of Oxygen has 8 protons, 8 neutrons, and 8 electrons. How many electrons will be in the outermost electron shell? a. zero b. 1 c. 2 d. 6 e. all 8

d. 6

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Organisms capable of inhabiting Earth's most extreme environments, such as volcanic springs and acid pools, belong to which group? a. Domain Animalia b. Domain Archaea c. Domain Bacteria d. Domain Extremophilia e. Domain Fungi

b. Domain Archaea

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Which one of the following has α-glucose as a component? a. Glycogen b. α-Helix c. Cellulose d. Chitin e. Phosphoglycan

a. Glycogen

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On food packages, to what does the term fiber usually refer? a. cellulose b. polypeptides c. starch d. amylopectin

a. cellulose

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Which two functional groups are seen in this moelecule? a. Mathyl and Sulfydrly b. Amino and Carboxyl c. Nitrogyl and Hydroxyl d. Isomoer and Oxyene

b. Amino and Carboxyl

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Amylose and Amylopectin are a. wrapped around eachother b. joined together with peptide bonds c. foind in adipose tissue d. polysacchardies in plants

d. polysacchardies in plants

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The quaaternary structure of a protien a. involves polar R groups but not nonpolar R groups b. includes α-folds and β-helices c. is the interaction between multiple polypeptides d. all of the above

c. is the interaction between multiple polypeptides

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How many covalent bonds can a Carbon atom form? a. 1 b. 3 c. 3 d. 4 e. None, oxygen only forms hydrogen bonds

d. 4

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Individual pentoses and hexoses are a. amino acid monomers that can combine to form prote9n polymers a. amino acid monimers that can combine to foirm protein polymers b. dissolved when inside a cell c. joined together to form disaccharides and plysaccharides through hydrolysis reactions d. usually nonpolar since they consis almost exlusively of C and H

b. dissolved when inside a cell

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The abbreviation for and atom of Potassium is a. P b. Po. c. Pt. d. Na e. K

e. K

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The "Scientific Method" a. is useful for studying living organisms, nut not for studying geology or astronomy b. uses deductive reasoning to make predictions and test those predictions c. is used to scientifically prove certain facts d. is always correct

b. uses deductive reasoning to make predictions and test those predictions

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How do Isotopes of the same element differ from each other? a. number of protons b. shell electron distribution c. number of electrons d. number of neutrons e. different arrangements of the same atoms to form a different molecule

d. number of neutrons

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A hydrophillic molecule a. is likely to have only C and H atoms b. will not have any functional groups c. will have polar covelent bonds d. will ahve equal sharing of electrons betweem adjeacent atoms

c. will have polar covelent bonds

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A molecule of water (H2O0 is polar because a. the oxygen atom is electronegative b. the protons of the two H atoms spend most of their time around the O atom c. the shared electrons spend most of their tine around the hydrogen atoms, especially the S+ hydrogen atom d. one end of the molecule is highly positive while the other two ends are highly negative

a. the oxygen atom is electronegative

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_____________ reactions form bonds between monomers to form a polymer, and _____ reactions break bonds in a polymer to form individual monomers. a. Lipolysis; Condensation b. Polymerization; Monomerization c. Dehydration; Hydrolysis d. Peptidyl; Lysergic

c. Dehydration; Hydrolysis

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The tertiary structure of a polypeptide is determined by a. the formation of α-sheets b. hydrogen bonding between adjacent monosaccharides c. interactions of amino acid R groups d. interactions between multiple polypeptides

c. interactions of amino acid R groups

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Which one of the following is the oxidized form of an electron carrier molecule? a. IDONTCARE b. REDOX c. NADH d. TGIF e. FAD

e. FAD

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A bacterial toxin destroys Kinesins. Which of the following would be most affected by this toxin? a. Intercellular movement of organelles and vesicles b. ability of intestinal cells to have increased surface area c. connection of extracellular matix components d. Passage of molecules from the cytosol of one cell to the cytosol of another cell

a. Intercellular movement of organelles and vesicles

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Why do your cells produce LActate under anerobic conditions? a. to give high-energy electrongs to the Electron Transport Chain b. to regenerate NAD+ so Glycolysis can stiull function c. to produce high concentrations of Lactate in the mitochondrial matrix which acan be used to make ATP d. to make H+ which can be "pumped" by Complexes I, III, and IV

b. to regenerate NAD+ so Glycolysis can stiull function

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An animal cell is lacking the proper carbohydrates on the external surface of its plasma membrane. What might have caused this problem? a. Improper functioning of the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum b. Few unsaturated fatty acid "tails" attached to the phospholipids c. Ribosomes are defective and did not attach the proper carbohydrates d. Nonpolar monosaccharides will appear in the middle of the bilayer rather than on the outside of the membrane

a. Improper functioning of the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

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In the Chloroplast Electron Transport Chain, where do electrons come from? What is the SOURCE of electrons? a. Light Harvesting Complex of Photosystem II b. NADH c. O2 d. H20 e. Photosystem I

d. H20

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A dietary deficiency of Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) would cause a significant reduction in which one of the following? a. NADH b. FADH2 c. Ribose d. Glucose

b. FADH2

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During aerobic metabolism in your mitochondria, electrons travel in which sequence? a. glucose -> ATP -> electron transport chain -> NADH b. food -> NADH ->electron transport chain -> oxygen c. glucose -> pyruvate -> ATP -> oxygen d. food -> glycolysis -> citric acid cycle e. food -> citric acid cycle -> ATP -> NADP+

b. food -> NADH ->electron transport chain -> oxygen

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How many molecules of NADH are produced by the Citric Acid Cycle for each molecule of Acetyl Coenzyme A that enter the Cycle? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 e. 5

c. 3

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ATP Synthase a. is found on the inner membrane of mitochondria b. is reduced by receiving high-energy electrons from NADH c. releases 6 CO2 for each Glucose passing through it d. produces ATP in the cytosol during Glycolysis

a. is found on the inner membrane of mitochondria

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A genetic mutation reduces the number of Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum in a muscle cell. What effect would this mutation have on the cell? a. increased ATP transport b. increased autophagy c. increased misfolding of newly-formed polypeptides d. reduced phospholipid synthesis

d. reduced phospholipid synthesis

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Light Harvesting Complexes are found a. in the Stroma b. on the surface of leaf Epidermal Cells c. on the Thylakoid Membranes d. associated with mitochondrial Complex, I, II, III, and IV

c. on the Thylakoid Membranes

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Three molecules of CO2 enter into the Calvin Cycle. Which of the following molecules is released from the Calvin Cycle? a. Pyruvates b. Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate c. Calvinate d. Pepco e. all of the above

b. Glyceradehyde-3-Phosphate

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Which molecule is the product formed by the normal reaction catalyzed by the enzyme RUBISCO? a. Phosphoglycerate b. Ribulose bisphosphate c. Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate d. Glucose e. O2

a. Phosphoglycerate

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The "Reaction Center Complex" of Photosystem I a. produces O2 from H2O b. receives electrons from its Oxygen Evolving Complex c. receives electrons from its Light Harvesting Complex d. receives electrons from NADPH e. receives electrons that came from Photosystem II

e. receives electrons that came from Photosystem II

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RUBISCO is associated with the biological boo-boo. What is the biological boo-boo a. O2 can bind to its active site b. CO2 can bind to its active site c. it can block the functioning of mitochondrial ATP Synthase if O2 is not present d. it can block the transfer of electrons from Photosystem II to Photosystem I

a. O2 can bind to its active site

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During carbon "fixation" in plants with the C3 cycle, a molecule of CO2 is added to a molecule of a. phosphoglycerate b. glucose c. ribulose bisphosphate d. Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate e. phosphoenolpyruvate

c. ribulose bisphosphate

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One symptom of Crohn's disease is that material passing through the small intestine can "leak" between the columnar cells into the underlying tissue. Which cellular component may not be functioning properly and could allow this leaking between cells? a. Desmosomes b. Tight Junctions c. Gap Junctions d. Chromoplasts

b. Tight Junctions

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Many chemotherapy drugs are designed to destroy the Actin proteins in cancer cells. How are these cancer cells affected? a. Microfilaments will not be formed H2O2 will increase and kill the cancer c. Cancer cells will no longer be able to attach themselves to other cancer cells d. Microtubules will not be formed

a. Microfilaments will not be formed

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Which one of the following is true regarding Maple Trees at night? a. The can continue to generate ATP using photorespiration b. They do not need ATP, so the lack of photosynthesis is not a problem c. They can substitute NADPH for ATP as a phosphate donor d. They can make ATP using glycolysis, Citric Acid Cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation

d. They can make ATP using glycolysis, Citric Acid Cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation

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Autophagy a. is the self-destruction of cells ("cell suicide") b. refers to vesicles from the Golgi Apparatus releasing digestive enzymes through exocytosis c. is the process by which immune cells destroy bacteria and viruses d. involves Lysosomes destroying old and damages organelles

d. involves Lysosomes destroying old and damages organelles

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I love rice Krispies. Doesnt everyone? a bowl of ric3e Krispies is 76% startch. What is startch a. protein b. the crunchie outside of an insect c. monomer d. nucleotide e. polysaccharide

e. polysaccharide

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α-helicies and β-sheets are a. different types of glucose monomers b. different ways in which phospholipids form the lipid bilayer of membranes c. very non-polar due to C and H atoms d. common folding patterns in polypeptides

d. common folding patterns in polypeptides

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Two atoms are joined by an Ionic bond. which one of the following statements is true regarding the cation. a. the cation received an extra electron from the anion b. it has a covalent bond to the other atom c. it has a net positive charge d. the number of protons in now greater than the number of neutrons

c. it has a net positive charge

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Your whole body is about 70% water. This high water content assists in maintaining temperature homeostasis because water has a a. low heat of vaporization b. tendency to soak up heat like a sponge, maintaining a relatively high temperature c. high capacity for cohesion and adhesion d. high specific heat capacity

d. high specific heat capacity

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Prokaryotic chromosomes a. make phospholipids b. are formed by a circular DNA double helix c. are made of tightly packed ribonucleic acids and proteins d. are found in the cytoplasm of bone marrow stem cells

c. are made of tightly packed ribonucleic acids and proteins

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A hydrophilic molecule a. will have polar covalent bonds b. is likely to have C and H atoms c. will not be dissolved inside of a cell d. will have equal sharing of electrons between adjacent atoms

a. will have polar covalent bonds

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Which of the following moelcules would move most rapidly thought the lipid bilayer of a plasma membrand using simple diffusion? a.water b. α-Glucose (but not β-Glucose) c. a triglyceride d. mRNA e. ATP

c. a triglyceride

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Individual prentoses and hexoses are a. amino acid monomers that can camobnine to form proteins poltmers b. joined together to form disaccharies and polysaccharides thropugh hydrolysis reactions c. usually nonpolar since they consist almost exlusively of C and H d. dissolved inside of a cell

d. dissolved inside of a cell

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Inductive reasoning a. involves making a hypothesis and testing it b. makes broad generalizations from specific observations c. males specific predictions based o na broad theory d. requires roof, not theory

b. makes broad generalizations from specific observations

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The secondary cell wall of plants a. is the main thick portion, giving these cells their shape and strength b. consists primarily of proteins and nucleotides c. is next to the cell nucleus on mature, non-growing cells d. is secondary in importance, with the primary wall being the thickest and strongest

a. is the main thick portion, giving these cells their shape and strength

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Useable energy in a molecule of ATP a. is greater than any otyher molecule in a cell, which is why ATP is used as the energy currency b. can be coupled to an endergonic reaciont c. is used for Carrier-Mediated Diffusion d. is released as heat

b. can be coupled to an endergonic reaciont

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The pH inside of a kidney cell is 7.1, and the pH outside of the cell is 7.4. If the pH inside of the cell needs to change from 7.1 to 7.0, which of the following should happen? a. active transport of H+ against their concentration gradient b. carrier-mediated diffusion of H+ from the inside of the cell to the outside of the cell c. opening of H+ channels d. increased pH buffering ability inside of the cell

a. active transport of H+ against their concentration gradient

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Carrier-Mediated Diffusion is important for the movement of which of the following molecules through a membrane? a. Monosaccharides b. Amylopectin c. Na+ and K+ d. Steroids and Fatty Acids

a. Monosaccharides

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What is the name of this functional group? a. carbonyl b. formyl c. amino d. hydroxyl e. carboxyl

e. carboxyl

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Cells in your lungs allow the simple diffusion of O2 and CO2. These cells probably have which shape? a. columnar b. cuboidal c. spherical d. cylindrical e. squamous

e. squamous

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Antiboitics suh as Streptimycin and Erythromycin kill bateria by inhibiting becterial "translation". What might be the actual mechanism of these antibiotics? a. unravel the double-helix RNA in the nucleus of the bacteria b. block the functioning of teh bacterial ribosomes c. break down the bacterial glycogen which will inhibit the translation of carbohydraye energy c. break down the bacterial glycogen which will inhibit the translation of carbohydrate energy to ATP energy d. block the entrance of the backterial cells into your intestinal cells

b. block the functioning of teh bacterial ribosomes

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Which one of the following is TRUE about Phospholipids? a. they have the typical monomer-polymer relationship as the other macromolecules b. the nonpolar sections will interact with water due to H-bonding, while the polar "tails" clump together in the interior of the bilayer. c. they form triglycerides in adipose tissue d. they consist of a diglyceride and a polar head group

d. they consist of a diglyceride and a polar head group

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This molecule is Caffeine. Which of the follwoing statements is correct about this moelcule? a. it is polar b. it is nonpolar c. it would dissolve in hydrocarbons (such as oils) d. it is a saturated molecule e. it is the Magic Fluid of Life (no, this is Not the correct answer)

a. it is polar

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Your nerve cells release thousands of neurotransmitter molecules (such as dopamine and serotonin) through which one of the following processes? a. Endocytosis b. Exocytosis c. Uniport d. Symport e. Antiport

b. Exocytosis

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Water can pass quickly through the plasma membrane of a kidney cell becuase a. water movement is coupled with the use of ATP b. it moves through Aquaporincs in the membrane c. it is a small ionic molecule d. the bilayer is mainly hydrophillic

b. it moves through Aquaporincs in the membrane

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Adenine and Guanine are a. saturated fatty acids b. polar head groups c. pyrimidines, single-ring structures d. purines, double-ring structures

d. purines, double-ring structures

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Tropical sea cucumbers excrete urine that has a high concentration of molecular phosphate, while the surroinding seawater is devoid of phosphate. Corals need phosphate in order to grow. Possibly, corals are able to take up the phosphate that is excreted in the sea cucumber urine. The previous sentence is best described as a(n) a. opinion b. hypothesis c. fact d. theory e. postulate

b. hypothesis

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Which one of the follwoing shows the correct order of classifcation groups, from most inclusve (largest group) to the least inclusive (smallest group)? a. Kingdom -> Phylum -> Class -> Domain -> Order -> Genus -> Family -> Species b. Domain -> Kingdom -> Family -> Order -> Genus -> Phylum -> Species c. Domain -> Kingdom -> Phylum -> Class -> Order -> Family -> Genus -> Species d. Species -> Genus -> Kingdom -> Order -> Family -> Phylum -> Domain -> Class

c. Domain -> Kingdom -> Phylum -> Class -> Order -> Family -> Genus -> Species

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Why are cells so small? Wh can't you consist of just a single cell? a. large cells would have membrane stabilization problems; membranes would have a greater change of ripping b. large cells would have difficulty transporting molecules to the middle of the cell c. small cells are more energetically active and can have a higher mmetabolic rate than large cells d. a large cell may have only one or a few funciotns, while many small cells can have many indicudual functions e. all of the above

b. large cells would have difficulty transporting molecules to the middle of the cell

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Halfwaydone!! Do you want some free points? a. YES!! b. No, I choose to get this question wrong c. I don't beleve anything in life is free d. this must be some type of fradulent hoax, a conspiracy e. I have fallen asleep and I am not ansering any more questions f. Whatever

a. YES!!

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A genertic defect in a plant cell prohibits the production of Amylose in the cell. What immediate effect will this have? a. decrased pyrimidines for DNA synthesis b. reduction in energy storage c. decreased phosphlipids in the plasma membrane d. loss of stregnth in the primary and secondary cell walls

b. reduction in energy storage

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Bacteria of the genus Erwinia use exocitosis to secrete an enxyme that destroys Pectn molecules. How will this enzyme assist the bacteria? a. destroy other bacteria b. allows them to use active transport processes such as carrier-mediated diffusion to take up "food" c. break down phospholipid bilayers on human intestinal cells d. enable them to break down plant cell walls and enter the plant cells

d. enable them to break down plant cell walls and enter the plant cells

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You sweate in order to leose heat. This process is an example of water's a. a high heat capacity b. high heat of vaporization c. cohesion d. adhesions e. density

b. high heat of vaporization

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Carbohydrates on the outside of your red blood cells determine your blood type. How are these carbohydrates attached to the red blood cell plasma membranes? a. they are attached to proteins and lipids b. with the nonpolar monosaccharides on the inside of the membrane, and the polar monosaccharides on the outside of the membrane. c. they form transmembrane α-helices that pass all the way through the membrane d. the carbohydrate hydrophobic fatty acid tails are in the middle of the lipid bilayer

a. they are attached to proteins and lipids

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"Science" can best be described as a. finding universal facts b. a self-correcting process in th search for truth about the natural world c. proving the existence of a Creator God d. scientists testing their personal theories e. all of the above

b. a self-correcting process in th search for truth about the natural world

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Celery stalks that are immersed in fresh water for several hours become stiff and firm. Celery stalks left in a high salt solution become very soft. From this information we can conclude that the cells of the celery stalks normally are a. hyposmotic to both fresh water and the salt solution b. hyperosmotic to both fresh water and the salt solution c. hyperosmotic to fresh water but hyposmotic to the salt solution d. hyposmotic to fresh water but hyperosmotic to the salt solution e. isosmotic to both fresh water and the salt solution

c. hyperosmotic to fresh water but hyposmotic to the salt solution

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During heavy exercise your cells produce lots of H+. However, molecular buffers "soak up" most of them so the actual cellular concentration of H+ does not change very much. This represents a. intraspecific variation b. adaptation to changes in the environment c. homeostasis d. prokaryotic variation

c. homeostasis

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According to science's current understanding of an atom, electrons a. are found within an electron could called a "Shell" b. have a neutral charge c. circle the nucleus of the atom in an "orbit" , similar to the way planets circle the sun d. are at their highest energy state when they are close to the nucleus

a. are found within an electron could called a "Shell"

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Which one of the following is a characteristic of Enzymes? a. Enzymes slow down reactions which in the absence of enzymes would occur tooquickly for life to occur b. Chemical reactions occur in the Active Site c. These carbohydrates have complex three-dimensional structures, their "conformation" d. Sustrate molecules are converted to Product moleules in the Allosteric Site

b. Chemical reactions occur in the Active Site

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A Multipass Protein a. circulates multiple times through blood vessels b. causes messenger RNa to be translated c. occurs in the cytosol d. has polar and nonpolar amino acids

d. has polar and nonpolar amino acids

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A phospholipid with two saturated fatty acids a. is more likely to be found in a very flexible membrane than in an inflexible membrane b. will be more polar than a phospholipid with only on esatuared fatty acid c. has fewer double bonds than a phospholpid with unsaturated fatty acids d. usually will have several hydroxyl function groups

c. has fewer double bonds than a phospholpid with unsaturated fatty acids

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An allosteric inhibitor would a. reduce the number of saturated bonds in a hydrocarbon b. bind to an enzyme at a site other than the Active Site c. prevent polar meolvules from forming hydogen bonds with each other d. stop endocytosis by blocking the bindign of a vesicle to a membrane

b. bind to an enzyme at a site other than the Active Site

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A disease causes a reduction of the production of Glyceral in your liver; your liver does not make Glycerol. Your liver therfore would most liekly also have a lowe concentration of a. fats b. purines c. β-glucose d. nucleic acids

a. fats

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Animals and bacteria are grouped into different Domains because a. animals are multicellular while bacteria can be either multicellular or unicellular b. bacteria are not made of cells c. animals have a nucleus, which bacteria lack d. bacteria decompose dead animals e, bacteria use a different energy source than ATP, which is used by animals

c. animals have a nucleus, which bacteria lack

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Compared with 31P, the isotope 32P has a. one more proton b. one more electron c. a diferent atomic number d. one more neutron

d. one more neutron

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ATP consists of a. three fatty acids +glycerol b. amylose + thymine + pentose c. three phosphates +ribose +adenine d. three phosphlipids +pryimidine + cholesterol e. two fatty acids +glycerol +polar head group

c. three phosphates +ribose +adenine

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A disease causes a reduction of the production of Thymine and Guanine in your liver; your liver does not make these molecules. Your liver therefore would most likely also have a low concentration of : a. β-glucose b. Glycogen c. Nucleic acids d. Fats e. ATP

c. Nucleic acids

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Cholesterol a. is a steroid important for membrane strength and flexibility b. requires Active Transport and Protein Carriers to be moved out of cells c. easily dissolves in water since it is highly polar d. crosslinks Cellulose in plant cell walls

a. is a steroid impoortant for membrane strength and flecibiklity

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You are bitten by a Black Widow spider (genus Latrodectus). The venom closes the "gate" on protein channels in your cardiac cells. Which type of cellular components will now have a difficult time crossing the plasma membranes of those cells? a. ions b. monosaccharides and nucleotides c. nonpolar amino acids d. steroids e. glycogen, amylose, and amylopectin

a. ions

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