World History Test 2 Vocab + Concepts

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suffrage

the right to vote (was extended to all male citizens, rather than just property owners)

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Robespierre

A shrewd lawyer and politician that quickly rose to the leadership of the Committee of Public Safety

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Reign of Terror

Robespierre was a chief architect and it had hasty trials with quick executions

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guillotine

a fast falling blade extinguished life instantly

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Napoleon Bonaparte

A popular military hero who won a series of victories against the Austrians in Italy

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Nationalism

a strong feeling of pride and devotion to one's country (spread in France)

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Marseilles

A port city in France where the national anthem for France was created

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plebiscite

popular vote by ballot

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Napoleonic Code

A code of laws made by Napoleon that embodied Enlightenment principles

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annexed

incorporated into his empire

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Continental System

Economic warfare tactic where Napoleon closed European ports to British goods.

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guerrilla warfare

Hit and run raids by the Spanish patriots on French supply trains and troops

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scorched-earth policy

Russian war tactic where soldiers retreated and burned crops and villages as they went to weaken French troops

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abdicated

to step down from power

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Congress of Vienna

Heads of state of Europe sat down to discuss how to restore stability and order in Europe

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legitimacy

restoring hereditary monarchies that the French Revolution or Napoleon had unseated

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Concert of Europe

A meeting in which the powers of Europe met periodically to discuss problems affecting peace in Europe

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natural laws

laws that govern human nature

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Enlightenment

revolution in thinking-through the use of reason, people and governments could solve every social, political, and economic problem. Heaven could be achieved on Earth.

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Thomas Hobbes

Wrote Leviathan, people naturally cruel, greedy, selfish, social contract, only a powerful government could control society, in the form of absolute monarchy.

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John Locke

more optimistic, rejected absolute monarchy, wrote Treatises of Government, government had obligation to the people it government, people have the right to overthrow the government

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social contract

agreement by which they gave up the state of nature for an organized society, put forth by Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau

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natural rights

rights that belonged to all human from birth, these include the right to life, liberty, and property.

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Baron de Montesquieu

wrote the Spirit of the Laws, separation of powers best way to protect liberty, came up with idea of checks and balances, studied government of Europe, sharp criticism of absolute monarchy, admired limited monarchy

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philosophes

"lovers of wisdom", thinkers who believed that the use of reason could lead to reforms of government, law, and society, from France

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Francois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)

used biting wit to expose abuses of the day, targeted corrupt officials and ideal aristocrats, he battled inequality, injustice, and superstition, detested salve trade and deplore religious prejudice, defended freedom of speech, detested by the French government and the Catholic Church

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Denis Diderot

produced a 28-volume Encyclopedia-purpose to change general way of thinking while explaining new ideas, Pope threatened to excommunicate those who read the encyclopedia...

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Rousseau

most controversial philosophe, came from poor home, believed that people in their natural state were basically good, wrote The Social Contract, good of community above individuals, profound hatred of all forms of political and economic oppression

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Mary Wolstonecraft

well known British social critic, women should decide what's in their own interest, only education could given women tools they need to compete with men, understanding but also critical, women do have duties, but should have right, philosophes leave them out

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physiocrats

thinks focused on economic reforms, looked for natural laws to define a rational economic system, rejected Mercantilism, make the land more productive

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laissez faire

allowing business to operate with little or no government interference

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The Wealth of Nations

Adam Smith argued that the free market should be allowed to regulate business activity, strong supporter of laissez faire, government has duty to protect society

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How did the achievements of the Scientific Revolution contribute to the Enlightenment?

The Scientific Revolution transformed the way people in Europe looked at the world. Scientific successors convinced educated Europeans of the power of human reason. Using the methods of the new science, reformers set out to study human behavior and solve the problems of society.These methods known as the Scientific Revolution led to another revolution in thinking, the Enlightenment.

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How did the philosophes influence ideas on society and the economy ?

They applied the methods of science to better understand and improve society. They spread the idea that the use of reason could lead to reforms of government, law, and society. They spread these beliefs through articles, books, and freedom of speech.

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censorship

restricting access to ideas and information, created by church and government to stop Enlightenment

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Candide

a humorous novel by Voltaire,1759, that slyly uses the tale to expose the corruption and hypocrisy of European society.

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salon

informal social gatherings at which writer, artist, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas, originated in 1600s

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Madame Geoffrin

ran one of the most respected salons

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baroque

grand, complex style of art that glorified huge battles or lives of saints, huge, colorful, and full of excitement

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rococo

more toned down than baroque, personal, elegant, and charming

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Johann Sebastian Bach

German Lutheran, wrote complex and beautiful religious work for organ choirs, baroque music

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George Frederick Handel

another German born, spent most of life in England, wrote the Messiah

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Franz Joseph Haydn

important figure in the development of classical music, helped develop string quartet and symphony

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

child prodigy, composer and performer, wrote operas, symphony, and religious music, musical genius played in salons

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Daniel Defoe

wrote the Robinson Crusoe and exciting tale about a sailor shipwrecked on a tropical island

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Enlightened despot

absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change

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Frederick II (or the Great)

Prussia king, 1740-1786, made government more efficient, religious tolerance, had Voltaire develop the Prussia academy of science

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Catherine II (or the Great)

Russian Empress, 1762, granted nobles charter of rights, criticized serfdom, was an enlightenment despot

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Joseph II

Hapsburg emperor in Austria, son and successor of Maria Theresa, disguised himself as a peasant to learn about problems people were facing "peasant emperor", abolished serfdom, sold property of clergy to build hospital, religious toleration to Protestants

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Explain how each of the following affected the spread of new ideas: (a) censorship (b) salons.

Do to censorship writers began to disguise their opinions in works of writing in order to not have them burned, this allowed people to learn about new ideas and be able to spread them. The salons allowed people to meet and discuss ideas with each other spreading new ideas.

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What were the goals of enlightened despots?

The goals of the enlightened despots was to bring political and social change.

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How did the Enlightenment affect (a) arts and literature (b) the lives of the majority?

The arts evolved to meet changing taste. Courtly art and architecture were either in the Greek and Roman traditions or in baroque. Later game rococo. A new audience, the middle class, emerged with its own requirements. New kinds of musical entertainment evolved and literature developed new forms and wide audience. The lives of the majority did not change but the culture changed very slowly

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How did the philosophes influence the enlightened despots?

The philosophes wanted to convince the ruling class that reform was necessary. The despots were the rulers they convinced. The philosophes persuaded the despots that equality and liberty were things worth working towards.

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Why did it take so long for Enlightened ideas to reach most Europeans?

serfdom and resistance from some peasants slowed Enlightenment through the masses.

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George III

English monarch at the time of the American Revolution. He worked to reassert royal power, dissolve the cabinet system, and make Parliment obey his will. Many of his policies were disasterous.

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Stamp Act

Imposed taxes on items such as newspapers and pamphlets. It was created to help pay for the Seven Years' War and The French and Indian War.

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Treaty of Paris

The treaty in which Britain acknowledged the independence of the USA. French, British, American diplomats signed it to end the war.

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James Madison

An American that helped write the constitution. He was greatly respected and later became the 4th president of the USA. His notebooks are our main sourse of info on the creation of the constitution.

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George Washington

This man was chosen to lead the American Army. He worked to incorporate order and disipline into his soldiers and to give them pride and loyalty. After the War, he became the USA's 1st president.

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Thomas Jefferson

A Virginian that was the principle author of the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration echoed John Locke's ideas on natural rights and popular sovereignty.

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Ben Franklin

An American philosopher, scientist, publisher, legislator, and diplomat sent by congress to France to seek military and financial support. He became very popular in France. When he returned to America, he served as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention.

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federal republic

A type of gov't with power divided between the nat'l gov't and the states. In the case of the USA, the power is divided still further, into branches: executive, judical, and legislative.

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popular sovereignty

A principle that states that all gov't power comes from the people.

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Outline the events leading to the American Revolution.

  1. Stamp Act. 2) Boston Massacre. 3) Boston Tea Party. 4) Constitutional Congress is formed. 5) The colonists declare independence from Britain.

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Summerize the events and signifigance of the American Revolution.

  1. The colonists declare independence from Britan=Start of the war. 2) The Battle of Saratoga=turning point in the war, persuaded France to help (the USA) in the war effort, then more European countries decided to help too. 3) The British surrender to Washington at Yorktown=British war effort crumbled. 4) Treaty of Paris=ends the war, Britan recognizes American independence.

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Yorktown, Virginia

Where the British army surrendered to Washington, causing the British war effort to crumble.

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How did the US constitution reflect the ideas of the Enlightenment?

In the Constitution there are: 3 branches of Gov't (Montesquieu) Natural Rights are protected (Locke) Bill of Rights (Philosophe's ideas in general)

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Bastille

Royal fortress that was overran successfully by peasants that sparked the French Revolution...peasants took thousands of rifles and tons of gunpowder

<p>Royal fortress that was overran successfully by peasants that sparked the French Revolution...peasants took thousands of rifles and tons of gunpowder</p>
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Lous XVI (16th)

Absolute King of France when they revolution started...he resists key reforms ..and was executed on charges of treason

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Marie Antoinette

Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)

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Estates General

An assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France dominated by clergy and nobles

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Versailles Palace

Site in French countryside of great opulence that Louis XVI and Marie were taken from by peasant force back to Paris

<p>Site in French countryside of great opulence that Louis XVI and Marie were taken from by peasant force back to Paris</p>
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Tennis Court Oath

A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution

<p>A pledge made by the members of France&apos;s National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution</p>
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Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

Adopted August 26, 1789, created by the National Assembly to give rights to all (except women).

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French Constitution of 1791

a constitution adopted during the French Revolution that established a constitutional monarchy in France.

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Constitutional Monarchy

A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.

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Jacobins

Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.

<p>Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.</p>
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Gulliotine

device used during the Reign of Terror to execute thousands by beheading

<p>device used during the Reign of Terror to execute thousands by beheading</p>
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Robespierre

leader of the Committee of Public Safety; chief architect of the Reign of Terror

<p>leader of the Committee of Public Safety; chief architect of the Reign of Terror</p>
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Marat

knowt flashcard image
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Danton, George

A radical supporter and close ally of Robespierre who was eventually declared a traitor; he was executed the guillotine

<p>A radical supporter and close ally of Robespierre who was eventually declared a traitor; he was executed the guillotine</p>
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Committee for Public Safety

Led by Maximilien Robespierre, its chief task was to protect the revolution from its enemies. Under Robespierre's rule, the committee killed more than 20,000 people.

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Reign of Terror

(1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed for "disloyalty"

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Directory

Established after the Reign of Terror / National Convention; a five man group as the executive branch of the country; incompetent and corrupt, only lasted for 4 years.

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