4.1-4.4 history test

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Which of the following is one main reason the Industrial Revolution was a turning point in world history?

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1

Which of the following is one main reason the Industrial Revolution was a turning point in world history?

The traditional rural lifestyle ended for most people

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2

Why did the population of Britain increase in the mid-1700s?

Better farming led to a food surplus, so fewer people died of starvation

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3

What important contribution did James Watt make to the Industrial Revolution?

He perfected a new source of energy

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4

Who supplied the capital that helped Britain industrialize?

investors willing to take risks

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5

Which sequence of events best describes the role of textile manufacturing in initiating industrialization?

Demand for cotton cloth grew, cottage industry developed, and machines replaced cottage industry

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6

Which statement best explains how transportation technology advanced the Industrial Revolution?

Rivers, ports, canals, and railroads aided the shipment of goods to many places

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7

What statement best describes the industrialization of other western nations after Britain?

Some nations learned about the new technology and had more resources than Britain so they could advance quickly

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8

How did enclosures contribute to the development of the Industrial Revolution?

hey consolidated fields to gain larger pastures

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9

What was one of Britain's primary contributions to industrialism?

British inventors developed new machines for the textile industry that led to the factory system

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10

What was one way that James Watt's steam technology contributed to the Industrial Revolution?

Steam engines improved the shipping of goods and raw materials

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11

Why were the first factories more efficient than the earlier putting-out system?

They brought workers and machines together in one place

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12

Industrialization spread because

other nations wanted to have the same economic opportunities that Britain enjoyed

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13

Which of the following statements about population trends during the Industrial Revolution is most accurate?

Demand for labor in factories was one cause of the population shift toward urban areas

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14

Which of the following supports the idea that the Industrial Revolution led to social change in Europe?

Entrepreneurs earned enough wealth to rise above the working class

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15

What statement best describes the lives of women who worked during the Industrial Revolution?

They worked 12 hours or more a day for half the pay of men, and they tended to the family and household when at home

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16

During the Industrial Revolution, how did economics drive political change?

The growing middle class demanded more democracy, so voting rights gradually expanded

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17

According to laissez-faire economists, what is the benefit of a free market?

As production increased, the supply of goods would also increase and prices would drop so more people could afford goods.

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18

The main focus of utilitarianism was?

ensuring the greatest happiness through individual freedom for all classes.

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19

Early socialism was most concerned with?

sharing all property and means of production.

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20

According to Marx, what would be the main characteristic of communism?

a classless society in which wealth and power were equally shared

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21

Which of the following best describes the new middle class that emerged as a result of industrialization?

Many of its members owned and operated the businesses that hired urban workers.

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22

Which statement best describes child labor during the early years of the Industrial Revolution?

Mines and text factories employed large numbers of children.

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23

What was one long-term benefit of the Industrial Revolution?

In industrial countries, the overall standard of living improved.

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24

Adam Smith defined the free market as an economic system in which?

the market functions with little or no government interference.

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25

Socialism is based on the belief that?

the means of production should be shared by everyone in society.

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26

There were several major advancements in the development of transportation for the mid-1800s to the early 1900s. How did transportation develop during this time? Be sure to include at least 4 specific advancements in the response.

The several major advancements in transportation was the turnpikes, canals, railroads, and the first airplane. People needed to travel goods faster and cheaper so they created turnpikes. Canals were created so that coal and raw materials could be shipped faster and, cheaper, and efficient. Railroads allowed carriages to be pulled and trains to travel anywhere the rivers couldn't. After the first airplanes were created, people's goods could travel over the English Canal and the Alps.

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27

List and explain the 4 major economic systems in Economics Core Concepts: Economic Systems?

The four major economic systems are traditional, market, command, and mixed. Traditional government is how people get their daily needs even it's how their ancestor's did. This includes hunting or faming. A market economy is when the business owners can make decisions about their business without government interference. A command economy is when the owners don't get to back their own choices for their business, but the central government does. A mixed economy includes a mixture of all three other economies. An example of this would be socialism.

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28

From the early 1800s to the early 1900s there were several major advancements in science and technology. Discuss at least 4 of the major advancements in science and technology during this time period.

The few major advancements in science and technology was the Bessemer Process, dynamite, light bulb, and products with interchangeable parts. The Bessemer Process made steel become a major material because it made steel more light, durable, and cheaper. The dynamite was a more safer explosive used doing warfare. The light bulb allowed for business to be lit up after dark. The interchangeable parts created less work for one person, efficiency, and affordable factory goods.

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29

There were several major advancements in the development of communication in the 1800s to the early 1900s. How did communication develop during this time? Be sure to include at least 4 specific advancements in the response.

The several major advancements of communication is the telegraph, radio, telephone, and the Trans Atlantic cable. The telegraph changed it to where people communicate with others through morse code messages that traveled by electricity wires. The radio enabled communication over long distances. The telephone made communication travel even faster over long distances. The Trans Atlantic cable was a popular telegraph that sent undersea messages.

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30

List and discuss at least 4 major reasons why the Industrial Revolution began in Britain.

4 major reason why the Industrial Revolution started was because of a favorable climate for business; Britain had a stable government that was ready the economic adjustment, labor and capital; the agricultural changed allowing laborers to increase, natural resource and geography; Britain had large amounts of power steam engines and plentiful iron and many ports, and entrepreneurs and inventors; Britain had many skilled people that created new inventions.

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31

How did Thomas Edison's invention of the light bulb affect industry?

Electric lights made it possible for factories to run after dark.

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32

Which of the following had the greatest impact on transportation during the second Industrial Revolution?

the internal combustion engine

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33

Which factors caused the population of Europe to soar between 1800 and 1900?

Medicine advanced, and the death rate fell.

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34

Which of the following changes to city life would be most likely to reduce the crime rate?

installing street lights

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35

Identify two major effects of new technology on business during the Industrial Revolution.

Production became faster and less expensive.

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36

Why did big business emerge during the Industrial Revolution?

New technologies required the investment of more capital.

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37

How did city life change during the last 1800s and early 1900s?

Improved sanitation slowed the spread of disease.

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38

Which development helped improve working conditions in many mines and factories during the late 1800s?

the growth of labor unions

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39

Louis Pasteur helped improve public health by

applying germ theory to combat disease.

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40

By 1900, women in Britain and the United States had not yet won the right to

vote

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41

Why had colleges and universities changed their curriculum by the late 1800s?

More people were working in industries that required science and engineering skills.

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42

Why was Darwin's theory controversial in the 1800s?

It contradicted the biblical view of creation.

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43

How did religious groups respond to the challenges of industrialization?

They worked for reform and social services.

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44

What was the goal of realist writers and artists?

to present reality and comment on social wrongs

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45

What did romantic poetry, music, and art have in common?

They stirred strong emotion and intense feelings in their audience.

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46

What was the goal of impressionist painters?

to capture the eye's first impression of a scene

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47

How did the lives of middle-class women change during the Industrial Revolution?

They spent more time buying items than producing them.

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48

How did realism reflect the culture of the Industrial Age?

Realism portrayed the social ills brought about by industrialization.

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49

Which value most shaped middle class home life during the later Industrial Revolution?

the cult of domesticity

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50

What was one way that working-class women differed from middle-class women?

They supported temperance and the women's suffrage movement.

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51

Why were the theories of Charles Darwin controversial?

They challenged long-held beliefs about human life.

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52

What was one effect of the Industrial Revolution on education?

Universities began stressing science and engineering

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