Cerebrah IMMUNOSERO (master list)

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Edward Jenner

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The entire reviewer including the sidenotes! Langkat kagaral

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1

Edward Jenner

1796 - Introduced vaccination against small pox and cross-immunity (cowpox and small pox)

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2

Louis Pasteur

1880 - developed the first attenuated vaccine

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3

Ellie Metchnikoff

1882 - cellular theory of immunity through phagocytosis

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4

Jules Bordet

1896 - discovered ‘alexin’ , now known as complement

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5

Jonas Salk

1949 - developed the polio vaccine (IPV)

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6

Albert Sabin

1949 - developed the polio vaccine (OPV)

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7

Rosalyn Yallow & Solomon Berson

1959 - developed the Radioimunnoassay technique

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8

Gerald Edelman & Paul Porter

1972 - discovered the chemical structure of antibody

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9

Cesar Milstein & George Kohler

1973 - devised Hybridoma technology

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10

Hybridoma

production of monoclonal antibodies, which can be used for reagents or treatment of cancer

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11

Susumu Tonegawa

1976 - discovery of genetic principle for Antibody diversity

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12

Innate or Non-Specific

Natural Immunity

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13

Immediate

Immunologic Response of Natural Immunity

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14

3 to 6 hours

Neutrophils response within ______

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15

Absent

Immunologic Memory of Natural Immunity

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16

1st and 2nd

Lines of Defense of Natural Immunity

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17

Acquired or Specific

Adaptive Immunity

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18

Slow

Immunologic Response of Adaptive Immunity

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19

3 to 7 days

Antibody production takes _______

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20

Present (Memory B cells and T cells)

Immunologic Memory of Adaptive Immunity

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21

3rd

Lines of Defense for Adaptive Immunity

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22

First Line of Defense

consists of anatomical barriers that prevent infectious agents from infecting the body (skin, mucous membrane, cilia, body secretions)

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23

5.6

pH of Intact Skin

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1 - 3

pH of stomach acid

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Lyzozymes

Body secretions contain ____

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26

Lyzozymes

tears, saliva, milk, and mucus (has antibacterial properties)

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27

Cellular and Humoral component

Second Line of Defense compose of ____

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28

Phagocytic Cells

Major component of the Second Line of Defense (PMNs, Monocytes, Macrophages)

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Antigen-Presenting Cells

Part of Cellular Component of 2nd line, Present to Helper T cells for antigen recognition

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30

Dendritic Cell

most effective Antigen-Presenting Cell ; most potent phagocytic cell

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31

Monocytes and Macrophages

APCs & Phagocytic cell

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32

Natural Killer Cells

part of cellular component of 2nd line ; cytotoxic cells which kills virus and tumor cells

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Humoral

composed of soluble factors or proteins

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34

Complement system

Major component of the 2nd Line of Defense of the Humoral Component

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35

Interferons

part of the Humoral Component of 2nd Line of Defense

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36

Third Line of Defense

Higher Line of Defense

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37

Specialized Lymphocytes

B cells and T cells, Cellular component of 3rd Line

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38

Antibodies & Cytokines

Humoral component of the 3rd Line of Defense

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39

Adherence

Physical contact between phagocytic cell and microorganism occurs

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40

Diapedesis

migration of WBCs from capillaries to surrounding tissue

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Chemotaxis

cells are attracted to the site of inflammation

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Engulfment

outflowing of cytoplasm to surround the microorganism

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Formation of Phagosome

microorganism is completely enclosed

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Granule contact

lysosomal granules fuse with the phagosome

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45

MPO

primary granule, important in bacterial digestion / respiratory burst

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Formation of Phagolysosome

contents of the lysosome are emptied

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Digestion

digestion of the microorganism by hydrolytic enzyme

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48

Excretion

contents of phagolysosome are expelled to the outside by exocytosis

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49

NK cells

Transitional cells bridging innate and adaptive immunity

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50

Neutrophils

first responders to infection

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51

Neutrophils

principal leukocyte associated with phagocystosis

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52

16 - 48 hours

Monocytes / Macrophages respond within _____

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53

Monocytes or Macrophages

Slow responders, constitute the Mononuclear phagocyte system

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54

Eosinophils

Less efficient phagocyte, contains granules

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55

Helminths

Eosinophils are toxic to ___

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Eosinophils

Neutralizes products of mast cells (hypersensitivity)

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57

Kupffer Cells

Liver Macrophages

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Alveolar Macrophages or Dust Cells

Lung Macrophages

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59

Microglial Cells

Brain / Nervous Tissue Macrophage

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60

Histiocytes

Connective Tissue Macrophage

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Langerhans Cells

Skin / Mucosa Macrophages

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Splenic Macrophage

Spleen Macrophage

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Littoral Cells

Lymph Nodes Macrophages

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Hofbauer Cells

Placenta Macrophages

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65

Osteoclasts

Bone Macrophage

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66

Mesangial Cells

Kidney Macrophages

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67

TLR (Toll-Like Receptors)

found on human leukocytes and recognize different microbial products

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TLR 1, 2, 4, 5, 6

Toll-Like Receptors for bacterial structures, found on the surface of the cell

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TLR 1, TLR 6

Lipopeptides (Mycobacteria)

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TLR 2

Peptidoglycan (G pos Bacteria)

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TLR 4

Lipopolysaccharide (G neg Bacteria)

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TLR 5

Flagellin

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73

TLR 3, 7, 8, 9, 10

Toll-Like Receptors for viral nucleic acid, located in the endosome

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TLR 3

dsRNA viruses

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TLR 7

ssRNA viruses

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TLR 8

ssRNA viruses

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TLR 9

dsDNA viruses

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TLR 10

unknown of function

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79

Opsonins

substances that coat the foreign cells to make them more susceptible to phagocytosis (CRP, C3b, antibodies)

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80

Acute-Phase Reactants

normal serum constituents that increase by 25% due to infection, injury, or trauma to tissues

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Hepatocytes, 12-24 hours

Acute Phase Reactants are produced by _____ within ____

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82

CRP

most commonly measured ACR, increases 1000x in value within 6-10 hours

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Cardiovascular Disease

CRP is a risk marker for ____

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84

High Risk

3 mg/L

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Average Risk

1-3 mg/L

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86

Active Immunity

host synthesizes own antibodies

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87

Passive Immunity

host receives antibodies derived from other sources

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Natural Active

gained from infection, antibody is produced by the host, long duration of response

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Artificial Active

Vaccination, antibody is produced by the host, long response

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Natural Passive

Placental transfer of IgG of mother to child ; IgG protection for the first few days of birth

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Artificial Passive

Infusion of plasma or serum ; COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma

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92

Active immunity

What type of immunity is vaccination?

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93

T-cells

60-70% of Lymphocytes

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94

B-cells

10-20% of Lymphocytes

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95

NK cells

10-15% of Lymphocytes

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96

Cell-mediated

T cells are _____ mediated immunity

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97

Humoral-mediated

B cells are ____ mediated immunity

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98

Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity

NK cells are ______ mediated immunity

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99

Viral, Fungal, Tumors, Graft Rejections

T cells defend against ____

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100

Bacterial infections

B cells defend against ____

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