[SHS_ENG2] 4th Periodic Test Flashcards

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Business Message

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143 Terms

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Business Message

➔ A communication tool used in order to get a
message across to its audience
➔ Ex: video presentation, business proposal
➔ A business message can be delivered in two
ways
◆ Direct Strategy
◆ Indirect Strategy

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What makes a business message effective?

➔ Purposeful
◆ The reason you are writing it.
➔ Economical
◆ brief and clear
◆ The reader will get the message right
away.
➔ Audience oriented
◆ The speech depends on your reader.
◆ Don't use technical terms when your
audience is not expert in the field.
➔ Process oriented
◆ clearly explain the specifics and ways.

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Writer's Block

➔ Psychological inhibition that prevents a writer
from proceeding with a piece.

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Morning Pages

➔ "Dumping site of writers"
➔ 3 page writing of own thoughts (similar to
journaling)

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Graphic Organizers

➔ Systematic illustrations of ideas taken from a
text you've read.
➔ Way of providing an overview of a text, used to
summarize information from an academic
paper and also used to simplify information.

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Pie Charts

◆ Represent data in a circular form with
each slice of the circle representing a
fraction or portion of the whole.
◆ Ex. results of a survey

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Venn Diagram

Diagram used to visually represent the
difference and similarities between
two or more concepts.

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T Chart

Used to visually represent two different
sets of information.

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Data Retrieval Chart

Used to gather and organize a variety of
characteristics about a topic.

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Data Storage Chart

Also used to fill in information needed
in the table.

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Flowcharts

Used to present information in a series
of processes.

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Ishikawa diagram

◆ The "fishbone diagram" created by:
Kaoru Ishikawa
◆ Used to show the causes of an event

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Sungram

Organizes information to show how
different ideas are related to each
other.

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Pyramid

Rank information from the most
important ones to the lesser ones.

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Timeline

Shows history

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Fire triangle

Shows the dependency of three
concepts among themselves.

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Reading-Writing Connection

➔ Reading and writing involve active thinking
processes.
➔ The benefits of reading and writing is it
reinforces or strengthen each other

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5 Macro Skills

➔ Reading - Writing
➔ Explicit - the meaning is obvious
➔ Letter sound relationships
➔ Listening - Speaking
➔ Viewing

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Bloom's taxonomy

Learning theory that explains how one can
think of things or learn something.

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Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

➔ Analyze - differentiate, organize, relate,
compare, contrast, distinguish, examine,
experiment, question, test
➔ Evaluate - appraise, argue, defend, judge,
select, support, value, critique, weigh.
➔ Create - design, assemble, construct,
conjecture, develop, formulate, author,
investigate

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Middle Order Thinking Skills

Apply - execute, implement, solve, use,
interpret, demonstrate, operate, schedule,
sketch

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Lower Order Thinking Skills

➔ Remember - define, duplicate, list, memorize,
repeat, state.
➔ Understand - classify, describe, discuss,
explain, identify, locate, recognize, report,
select, and translate.

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Concept Paper

➔ A type of text that discusses "what is an
idea/term?"
➔ Starts with a definition , either, formal or
informal of the term or the concept and
proceeds with an expanded definition

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Concept Paper in the Academe Setting

➔ A concept paper may come in a form of
research paper
➔ Concept paper presents idea/proposal
◆ Ex. Research proposal

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Concept Paper in the Workplace Setting

➔ The concept paper should give a clear picture
of what the research, project, or the study is all
about.
◆ Ex. Project proposal

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Project Proposal

➔ Proposal that requests for financial assistance
to implement a project.
➔ A detailed description of a series of activities
aimed at solving a problem.
1. Follows a format
➔ Provides a logical presentation of a
research idea.
2. Justify how it supports the company's causes
➔ Shows the ideas' relationship to past
actions.
3. Establishes the activity's worth to the company
➔ Illustrates the significance of the idea.
4. Gives a detailed plan on how to execute the project.
➔ Articulates the activities for the
proposed project.

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Elements of a Project Proposal

➔ Clear
➔ Accurate and objective
➔ Accessible
➔ Concise

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Clear

◆ Understandable
◆ Uses plain language

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Accurate and objective

Based on facts

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Accessible

All possible questions answered

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Concise

Brief but substantial

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Format of a Project Proposal

➔ Project Title
➔ Project Rationale
➔ Project Objectives
➔ Project Proponents
➔ Project Description
➔ Target Beneficiaries
➔ Venue
➔ Platform
➔ Project Duration
➔ Program Flow
➔ Project Budget

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Project Title

◆ Accurately reflect the content and
focus of the project
◆ Tips:
● Use keywords or phrases that
highlights the main topic,
objectives, or key elements of
the project
● Keep it short and simple
● Be creative and engaging

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Project Rationale

Provides the underlying reasoning and
justification for undertaking the
project

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Project Objectives

The goal or aim of the project

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Project Proponents

Individuals, groups, organizations or
entities who proposed and initiated the
project.

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Project Description

◆ Provides detailed information about
the project
◆ Includes the project process: how the
project will be implemented

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Target Beneficiaries

The group of people that will be
affected by your project; who will
benefit from it.

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Venue

Physical location where a project or
specific project-related activities will
take place.

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Platform

Used for online settings.

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Project Duration

◆ Total length of time required to
complete a project from start to finish
◆ Typically expressed in units of time,
such as hours, days, weeks, months, or
years depending on the scale and
complexity of the project.

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Program Flow

The project process for seminar with
programs

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Project Budget

◆ Detailed financial plan
◆ Breakdown of expenses related to
various project activities.
◆ Direct costs
● expenses directly attributable
to the project activities.
◆ Indirect costs
● not directly attributable to the
project

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Argumentative Essay

➔ Also called "persuasive essay."
➔ A piece of writing is used to convince readers
to agree to an argument or claim about a
particular topic.

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Parts of an Essay

➔ Title
◆ Captures attention
◆ Explicit
◆ Can easily be understood
➔ Introduction
◆ Thesis statement
➔ Body
◆ Explain points given in the
introduction
➔ Supporting Details
◆ Arguments
➔ Conclusion
◆ Summary and Recommendations

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Argumentation

➔ Process of reasoning by advancing proof
◆ valid reasons, citations, references,
and reliable sources

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Goals of Argumentative Essay

➔To persuade and move the audience
➔ To articulate why the stance was chosen

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Forms of Argumentative Essays

➔ Editorials
➔ Op-Ed
➔ Letters to editors
➔ Reviews
➔ Advertisements
➔ Propaganda

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Editorials

States the general opinion of the organization
(editors and publishers)

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Op-Ed

➔ Opposite-Editorial
➔ Piece of an essay that tries to convince readers
to agree with the writer's views on an issue.

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Letters to editors

Letters sent to a publishing organization to
express one's opinions in response to
published articles

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Reviews

Evaluate items and activities, such as books,
movies, plays, and music, from the writer's
point of view.

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Advertisements

Announcements that try to persuade people to
purchase or act

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Propaganda

➔ Persuades people to think or act in a certain
way.
➔ Uses emotional appeal and is often biased,
false, or misleading information

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Elements of Argumentation

➔ Argument/Claim
➔ Counter argument or Counterclaim
➔ Refutation

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Argument/Claim

An argument states a claim and
supports it with reasons and evidence
from sources

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Counter argument or Counterclaim

An argument that's stand in
opposition to your argument/claim

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Refutation

◆ Simply disproving an opposing
argument
◆ Attacking the opponent's claims point
by point

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Argumentative Essay Structure

➔ Introduction
◆ Background information of the
controversy/topic
◆ Clear, concise, and defined thesis
statement
➔ Body
◆ Argument in favor/against
◆ Reasons
◆ Evidential supports
➔ Conclusion
◆ Final statement

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Argumentative Essay Structure: Balanced

➔ Introduction
◆ Background information of the
controversy/topic
◆ Clear, concise, and defined thesis
statement
➔ Body
◆ Argument in favor
◆ Reasons and Evidential support
◆ Argument against
◆ Reasons and Evidential support
➔ Conclusion
◆ Summary of two sides
◆ Point of view and explain why briefly

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Reaction Paper

➔ A written paper of a reaction to something you
have read or seen.
◆ Be organized
◆ Has citations and references
◆ Includes opinions with factual
supporting evidences
◆ Refrain for using "i think", "i feel"or "i
believe"
◆ Avoid using the pronoun "you"
◆ Don't simply repeat what the author
has already said.

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The Three Elements of a Reaction Paper

E
R
E

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E

Evidence that you have understood what the
material said

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R

Reaction to the writer or creators ideas

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E

Evaluation of the materials

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Steps in writing a Reaction Paper

➔ Read and study the material
➔ Annotate as you read
➔ Ask questions as you read
➔ Free write
➔ Decided on your angle and determine your
thesis
➔ Organize your paper
➔ Gather quotations
➔ Structure your paragraph

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Critique Paper

➔ The goal is to make use of constructive
criticisms
➔ Briefly summarizes and critically evaluates the
work.
➔ Evaluates:
◆ Creative works
◆ Research
◆ Media

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Parts of a Critique Paper

➔ Introduction
◆ Article and its author
◆ Your main point
➔ Body
◆ Summary of the issues
◆ Author's key assumptions
◆ Your perspective on these assumptions
and basis used
➔ Conclusion
◆ Overall evaluation
◆ Summary of the key reasons why the
critique paper is formed

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Three Stages in Writing

➔ Stage 1: Pre-writing
➔ Stage 2: Writing
➔ Stage 3: Revising or Post-writing

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Writing is a recursive process.

It does not end by finishing at Stage 3 because
you might write again from the beginning.

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Stage 1 or Pre-writing

Brainstorming by analyzing, anticipating, and
adapting.

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Substages of Stage 1

➔ Defining the purpose
➔ Analyzing the audience
➔ Establishing good relationship
➔ Cultivate a 'you' view
➔ Choosing your channel and medium

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Defining the purpose

Realistic, appropriate, timely, and acceptable.

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Analyzing the audience

➔ Consider primary audience, size, and
composition.
➔ Anticipate reaction
➔ Use words understandable to the audience
◆ Primary audience - directly affected
◆ Secondary audience - indirectly
affected

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Establishing good relationship

Put emphasis on the audience's benefits

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Cultivate a 'you' view

Speak to your audience as if you are their
friend!

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Choosing your channel and medium

➔ Medium
◆ Kind of language
◆ Verbal or non-verbal
➔ Chanel
◆ Tools or gadgets

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Media Richness Theory

➔ by Richard Daft and Robert Hhengel
➔ Different types of mediums have varying levels
of effectiveness.
◆ Criteria: feedback, personal focus,
immediacy, and multiple cues.

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Levels of Language Use

➔ Unprofessional
➔ Conversational
➔ Formal Language
➔ Positive Language
➔ Courteous Language
➔ Inclusive Language
➔ Plain Language
➔ Familiar words

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Unprofessional

➔ Seen in comic strip and casual conversations
➔ "Yup, copy that."

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Conversational

➔ Present in business messages, most
newspapers, and most magazines.
➔ "I have received your request."

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Formal Language

➔ Scientific writing, academic writing, scholarly
books, and proclamations.
➔ Ex. "This is the acknowledged receipt of your
request."

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Positive Language

➔ Affirmative

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Courteous Language

➔ Makes use of modal verbs
➔ In question form

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Inclusive Language

➔ Usage of professional honorifics
➔ They/them pronouns

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Plain Language

Easily understandable

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Familiar words

➔ Use simple alternatives
➔ Ex. Use end instead of terminate.

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Stage 2 of Writing

Where you research, organize, and compose.

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Composing

➔ Structure of a written work
◆ Effective sentence
◆ Errors
◆ Structure

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Errors

➔ Fragment Sentences
➔ Run-on Sentences
➔ Comma Splice
➔ Dangling Modifiers
➔ Misplaced Modifiers
➔ Faulty Parallelism

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Fragment Sentences

◆ An incomplete sentence that lacks a subject, a verb, or does not express a complete thought
◆ Ex : Even though the pay was low. Many
candidates applied.

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Run-on Sentences

◆ A grammatical error occurs when two or more independent clauses (complete sentences) are joined together without proper punctuation or coordination.
◆ Ex: Two candidates applied, only one
was hired.

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Comma Splice

◆ A grammatical error occurs when two independent clauses (complete sentences) are joined with only a comma, without any coordinating conjunction or appropriate punctuation.
◆ Ex: Many were qualified, Ryoma was
hired.

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Dangling Modifiers

◆ A modifier in a sentence is not clearly or logically connected to the word or phrase it is intended to modify.
◆ Ex: Using a search engine, the web site
was finally located.

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Misplaced Modifiers

◆ A modifier such as an adjective, adverb, or phrase, is placed in an incorrect position within a sentence
◆ Ex: It's hard to understand why
employees would not go to our
technical support with software
problems.

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Faulty Parallelism

◆ A grammatical error that occurs when the elements in a sentence or a series of sentences are not parallel or consistent in their form.
◆ Ex: A wedding planner must arrange for
the venue, the flowers, and a person to
take videos.

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Structure

➔ Simple Sentences
➔ Compound Sentences
➔ Complex Sentences
➔ Compound- Complex Sentences

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Simple Sentences

Single sentence that can stand alone.

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Compound Sentences

◆ Independent clause + Independent
clause
◆ Joined by a coordinating conjunction.

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Complex Sentences

◆ Independent clause + dependent
clause
◆ Joined by subordinating conjunctions

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