Chapter 9: Exam 2

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Disease

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Biology

56 Terms

1

Disease

an abnormal state in which the body is not performing normal functions

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2

Pathology

the study of disease

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3

Etiology

the cause of a disease

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4

Pathogenesis

the development of disease

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5

Epidemiology

is the monitoring and controlling disease occurrence to promote public health

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6

Pathogen

microorganism that creates a disease

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7

Infection

invasion or colonization of the body by pathogens

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8

infectious disease

is an illness caused by a pathogen

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9

Helminths (parasitic worms)

hookworm, pinworm, trichinosis, schistosomiasis (eukaryotic multicellular animal)

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10

Protozoan (animal-like protists)

Giardiasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis (eukaryotic unicellular parasites)

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11

Fungi

histoplasmosis, athlete's foot (tinea pedis)

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12

bacteria

prokaryotic unicellular; some are obligate intracellular parasites, which other are fee living; usually smaller than eukaryotic cells (streptococcal infections, staphylococcal infections, bacterial pneumonia, tetanus, chlamydia. tuberculosis, typhus, whooping cough (pertussis) plague

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13

viruses

not cells; infectious particles containing nucleic acids ( DNA or RNA genome); usually smaller than prokaryotic cells (chickenpox, measles, AIDS, rabies, influenza, cold, polio, smallpox, herpes, hepatitis

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14

Prions

infectious proteins (not cells); do not contain DNA or RNA; can cause certain proteins in host brain to fold incorrectly ( the human analog of "mad cow disease")

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15

opportunistic pathogens

only cause disease when their host is weakened (e.g., weak immune system)

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16

true pathogen

does not require a weakened host to cause disease (makes everyone sick)

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17

sporadic cases

a disease are isolated infections in a particular population (ebola)

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18

endemic infections

are routinely detected in population or region (head colds)

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19

epidemic

a widespread disease outbreak in a particular region during a specific time frame

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20

pandemic

occurs if an epidemic spreads to numerous countries

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21

emerging pathogens

included newly identified agents as well as pathogens that previously caused only sporadic cases (COVID-19, Zika)

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22

reemerging pathogen

an infectious agent that was under control but is now surfacing (antibiotic resistance bacteria)

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23

Zoonotic diseases

spread from animals to humans- (many are noncommunicable)

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24

communicable diseases

transmit from human to human

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25

contagious diseases

easily transmitted from one host to the next

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26

signs

objective indicators of disease that can be measured or verified (fever, rash or blood in stool)

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27

symptoms

are sensed by the patients and are subjective rather than precisely measurable (pain, fatigue, and nausea)

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28

latent infection

usually asymptomatic ( no signs or symptoms)

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29

Acute disease

have a rapid onset and progression

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30

chronic disease

slower onset and progression

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31

reservoirs

are an animate or inanimate habitat where the pathogen is naturally found

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32

sources

disseminate infectious agent from the reservoir to new hosts

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33

endogenous source

the pathogen came from the host's own body

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34

exogenous source

the pathogen is external to the host; (environmental- contaminated food, animals-transmit zoonotic disease to people, humans-transmit communicable infections from one person to another)

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35

misplaced normal microbiota

bacteria living harmlessly on the skin can enter surgical incisions to cause postoperative infections

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36

disrupted microbiota and opportunistic pathogens

yeast in the vagina may proliferate and cause infection after antibiotics kill off bacterial neighbors

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37

modes of transmission

how the pathogen spreads to a host

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38

direct contact transmission

between source of pathogen and host

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39

indirect contact transmission

no direct contact between the source of pathogen and host

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40

vertical transmission (direct)

occurs when the pathogen passes from mother to offspring during; pregnancy, delivery, breast feeding

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41

airborne transmission (indirect)

the pathogen enters through the respiratory route; usually occurs by inhaling pathogen-laden respiratory droplets

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42

vehicle transmission (indirect)

pathogen is found on contaminated fomite (doorknobs, needles, sheets, food)

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43

vector transmission (indirect)

transmission by vectors (arthropods)

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44

biological vector (indirect)

vector organism has a role in the pathogens life cycle (ticks, mosquitos)

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45

mechanical vector (indirect)

vector spreads disease without being integral to the pathogen's life cycle (flies, rodent, and cockroaches)

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46

infectivity

describes how good an infectious agent is at establishing an infection

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47

virulence

describes severity of disease following infection

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48

pathogenicity

the general ability of an infectious agent to cause disease

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49

infectious agent

how many/much of a pathogen have to be in contact with something to become sick

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50

what are the five general stages of disease that occurs during infection?

  1. incubation period

  2. prodromal period

  3. acute phase

  4. period of decline

  5. convalescent phase

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51

incubation period

the period between infection and the development of the earliest symptoms

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52

prodromal phase

early symptoms develop- start to feel run down and may have mild symptoms

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53

acute phase

the peak of the disease; full-blown classical symptoms of the disease; known as a symptomatic case ( or a clinical infection)

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54

asymptomatic case (subclinical case)

symptoms are mild or nonexistent; prodromal and acute phase go unnoticed

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period of decline

pathogen replication decreases; patient begins to feel better

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convalescent period

elimination of the pathogen from the body

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