Cell Transport Unit - Honors Biology Grade 9

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What are the 4 functions of the plasma membrane?

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Biology

9th

153 Terms

1

What are the 4 functions of the plasma membrane?

maintain high concentration of material in cell, keep harmful materials out, control movement in and out of cell, let the cell sense its environment

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2

What is the term for allowing only certain substances to enter or leave the cell?

selectively permeable

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3

What are the 6 protein types in the cell?

integral, structural, peripheral, recognition, marker, enzyme

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4

What is the job of the integral protein?

stretches through 2 layers and can form channel

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5

What is the job of the structural protein?

structure, shape, and form

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6

What is the job of the peripheral protein?

attach to structural proteins and help cell to cell binding

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7

Where is the peripheral protein in relation to the cell when attached to structural proteins?

inside of cell

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8

Where is the peripheral protein in relation to the cell when helping cell to cell binding?

outside of cell

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9

What is the job of the recognition proteins?

recognize marker proteins

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10

What is the job of the marker proteins?

identify the cell

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11

What is the job of enzyme proteins?

acts as an enzyme to speed up reactions

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12

What does all cellular transport require?

concentration gradient

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13

What is concentration gradient?

high and low concentration

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14

What does diffusion require?

concentration gradient (high -> low)

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15

What lets small, non-polar, hydrophobic molecules squeeze through a membrane?

simple diffusion

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16

What do protein pumps require?

ATP energy

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17

What type of transport is exocytosis and endocytosis?

bulk transport (active transport)

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18

How many phosphate groups does ATP molecules have?

3

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19

How many phosphate groups does ADP molecules have?

2

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20

How many phosphate groups does AMP molecules have?

1

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21

Where is energy stored in ATP and ADP?

in the bond between the last two phosphate groups

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22

How is energy created from ATP and ADP?

energy is created when the bonds between the phosphate groups break

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23

What does ATP turn into after energy is created?

ADP

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24

What does ADP turn into after energy is created?

AMP

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25

What does ADP turn into when another phosphate group attaches to the second phosphate group?

ATP

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26

What kind of protein pumps are there?

uniport, symport, antiport

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27

What is the protein pump called when one molecule is transported into one direction?

uniport

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28

What is the protein pump called when two molecules are transported into one direction?

symport

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29

What is the protein pump called when two molecules are transported into different directions?

antiport

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30

What is a molecule that opens up a channel called?

ligand

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31

What do ATP and ADP act as when they attach to a protein and release energy to move the molecule through the protein?

ligand

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32

What does sodium potassium pumps contain?

voltage gradient

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33

____ ___ couples with ____ and helps it come inside of a cell

sodium ion/sugar

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34

What are the two types of endocytosis?

phagocytosis and pinocytosis

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35

What is taking in solids?

phagocytosis

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36

What is taking in liquids?

pinocytosis

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37

What does endocytosis form inside the cell?

vacuole

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38

What forces material out of the cell in bulk?

exocytosis

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39

What is the ability to move water across a cell membrane called?

tonicity

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40

What is it called when water is absorbed and the cell bursts? (animal cells)

cytolysis

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41

What is the environment called where it is 10% salt and 90% water on the outside and 90% salt and 10% water inside of the cell? (animal cells)

hypotonic solution

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42

What is it called when the cell stays the same because of the balance of salt and water inside and outside of the cell? (animal cells)

dynamic equilibrium

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43

What is the environment called where it is 50% salt and 50% water inside and outside of the cell? (animal cells)

isotonic solution

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44

What is it called when the cell loses water and shrinks? (animal cells)

plasmolysis

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45

What is the environment called where there is 90% salt and 10% water outside of the cell and 10% salt and 90% water inside of the cell?

hypertonic solution

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46

What is it called when water is absorbed and the cell expands? (plant cells)

turgid

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47

What is it called when the cell stays the same? (plant cells)

flaccid

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48

What is it called when water leaves the cell and it shrinks? (plant cells)

plasmolyzed

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49

What is the pressure on the cell wall due to its expansion called?

turgor/osmotic pressure

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50

Cell wall prevents cell from ____

bursting

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51

What else is simple diffusion known as?

passive transport

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52

What does passive transport not need?

energy

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53

In simple diffusion molecules travel with the ____ from ____ to ____ concentration

concentration gradient/high/low

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54

When may a cell need to perform endocytosis?

when taking in a polysaccharide

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55

When may a cell need to perform exocytosis?

when getting a polysaccharide out of the cell to help repair or build the cell wall

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56

What are the protein channels called that help water travel?

aquaporins

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57

____ are traveling through a cell membrane with the ____

charged ions/concentration gradient

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58

What do cells use to expend energy needed for transport?

ionic channels

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59

What happens by diffusion across a membrane wen gases are dissolved in water?

gas exchange in water

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60

The more the surface area the ____

faster the exchange

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61

What environment are humans in?

hypertonic

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62

What do some land-dwelling organisms not have?

gas-exchanging organs

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63

What do land-dwelling organisms without gas-exchanging organs use for gas exchange?

skin

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64

Where does air enter the body?

spiracle

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65

What do lungs minimize?

the effect of drying out

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66

The concentration of what molecules is not great in the lungs?

O2 and CO2

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67

What is another word for windpipe?

trachea

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68

What is another word for voice-box?

larynx

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69

What is located inside the larynx?

vocal chords

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70

What are alveoli located at the end of?

bronchioles

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71

What are the two tubes connecting to the trachea?

bronchii

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72

Where do the wind pipe and the food pipe meet?

pharynx

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73

What are alveoli covered in?

capillaries

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74

Higher ____ and lower ____ in alveoli but higher CO2 and lower O2 in blood so they ____

O2/CO2/diffuse

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75

left (blue) tube is ____ and right (red) tube is ____

small vein/small artery

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76

What is the muscle in the respiratory system that humans cannot control?

diaphragm

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77

What is the diaphragm made of?

tissue

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78

What is the shoulder to head region called?

head region

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79

hat is the shoulder to ribcage region called?

thorax region

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80

What is the ribcage to waste region called?

abdominal region

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81

What are the body parts that are not necessary for survival called?

appendages

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82

What must be removed (through urinary system)?

excess salt and CO2

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83

What is the removal of salt and CO2 necessary for?

homeostasis

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84

What is the sum/average of all of the reaction that happen in the body called?

metabolism

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85

What does metabolism produce?

toxic nitrogen waste (NH3)

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86

What has high solubility and is toxic nitrogen waste? (animals and algae)

ammonia

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87

What has high solubility and is toxic nitrogen waste? (mammals and fish)

urea

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88

What has low solubility and is a nontoxic form of nitrogenous waste? (birds and reptiles)

uric acid

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89

What filters blood?

kidney

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90

What is on the left?

renal vein

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91

What is on the right?

renal artery

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92

What stores waste?

urinary bladder

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93

What gets rid of waste?

urethra

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94

What is the "strainer" of the urinary system, millions of which are located in the renal medulla, and can also be called the uriniferous tubule?

nephron

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95

What type of transport is nephron function?

passive

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96

What is it called when blood is under high pressure in the glomerulus and therefore filters out all waste, water, and some essential molecules and this filtrate is collected in the bowman's capsule?

ultra filtration

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97

What two parts of the nephron are present during ultra filtration?

bowman's capsule and glomerulus

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98

What is it called when the filtrate moves through the proximal convoluted tubule and the loop of Henle, water and essential molecules which are higher in concentration, move from the tube to the surrounding blood vessels?

selective reabsorption

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99

What two nephron parts are present during the selective reabsorption?

loop of Henle and proximal convoluted tubule

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100

What keeps the trachea from collapsing?

cartilage rings

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