Photosynthesis / Respiration

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Biology

11th

31 Terms

1

ATP

ADP+Pi; energy caring molecule

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2

Respiration

Several different interlinked metabolic pathways that control the release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP

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3

Matrix

The inside squiggly space of the mitochondria

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4

Outer mitochondrial membrane

The membrane on the very outside of the mitochondria

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5

Inner membrane

The membrane closest to the matrix

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6

Cristae

The folds of the matrix

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7

Small inner membrane Space

The space in between the matrix and the outer membrane

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8

70S Ribosomes

The units of Ribosomes inside the matrix-same as bacteria…Endosymbiotic theory?

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9

ADP

Lower energy version of ATP

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10

NADP

Lower energy kidnappers. Grab electrons and Hydrogen and use them

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11

NADPH

Higher energy version of NADP, holds 2 electrons

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12

Glycolysis

The first stage of respiration, literally means “sugar splitting” Glucose goes in, 2 pyruvate comes out (net yield +2 ATP), occurs in cytoplasm

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13

Link Reaction (🗡 haaup!)

2nd phase of resperation. Occurs in matrix of mitochondria

  1. Pyruvate goes in

  2. add CoA (enzyme)

  3. Acetyl CoA comes out

CO2 from pyruvate becomes waste product, NAD=>NADH takes Hydrogen

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14

Fun fact!

The feeling of suffocation comes from brain noticing too much CO2 instead of the lack of Oxygen

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15

Kreb’s Cycle

Third phase of respiration happens in the matrix.

  1. Acetyl CoA comes in

  2. Molecules are combined and broken apart in different ways to yield most energy

  3. CoA comes out 🏳️‍🌈 and goes back into link

Net yield: 2 ATP, 6 NADH+H, 2 FADH2

2 CO2 waste

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16

Electron Transport Chain

The fourth phase of respiration happening in the inner membrane. Child Labor Camp

  1. NADH and FADH2 drops off electrons and H and goes back to Kreb+Link

  2. electron and Hydrogen goes through membrane via proteins

  3. Electrons stay in the Membrane and provides energy to the other proteins.

  4. The hydrogen on the other side of the membrane is sad because they’re in high concentration soooo:

  5. Chemosmosis

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17

Chemosmosis

Last step of ETC. When the Hydrogens move through the inner membrane inyo the matrix from high concentration to low concentration. Go through ATP Synthase

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18

ATP Synthese

Enzyme that allows H to go through chemiosmosis

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19

2H2O

When the Hydrogen that comes through ATP Synthase it’s mopped up and makes water 💦

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20
<p>Sir Hans Krebs</p>

Sir Hans Krebs

(1900-1981) was a distinguished biochemist who received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1953 for his discovery of the tricarboxylic acid cycle—the "Krebs cycle."

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21

Photosynthesis

Metabolic pathway that uses CO2 and H2O to produce carbohydrates-O2 is then released as a waste product. Endothermic process

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22

Chlorophyll

Makes plants green with pigment, absorbs wavelengths of light 🌱

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23

Types of light plants absorb

Red, Blue, Purple NOT green

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24

Light intensity, CO2 concentration, and Temp

Factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis

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25

Light Dependent Reaction

It happens in Thylakoid Membrane. The First stage of Photosynthesis

  1. Light hits PS2 electrons are passed down. H2O splits and leftover elections go into PS2

  2. Photon gives energy to electrons

  3. Proton Pump pumps in H

  4. Light hits PS1 and gives more energy to electrons

  5. NADP kidnaps electrons

  6. ATP Synthase pumps hydrogen from step 3 out and ATP is created

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26

Calvin Cycle

Happens in the stroma. Biochemical pathway that allows carbon fixation.

NADPH, ATP, and CO2 go in.

MAKES ADP, NADP, and Sugar

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27

Thylakoid membrane

Internal membrane arranged in flattened sacs, has chlorophyll and other pigments

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28

Grana

Sacks of thylakoid membranes

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29

Stroma

Semi liquid substance surrounding thylakoid membranes

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30
<p>Dr. Melvin Calvin</p>

Dr. Melvin Calvin

The white man American biochemist that first identified the Calvin Cycle in 1957.

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31

Energy (ATP from light dependent reactions), Reduction Potential (NADPH fro PS1)

To build Carbohydrates, cells need

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