Unit 2 Chapter 3: Atomic Theory

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Democritus (400BCE)

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Democritus (400BCE)

-believed that eventually matter would not be able to be split anymore -coined term "atom" from atomus, meaning indivisible

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Aristotle (400BCE)

-believed the world was continuous and made up of earth, air, fire, water

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Dalton (1808)

Dalton's Atomic Theory

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JJ Thomson (1897)

credited with discovering the negative particle of the atom: electron

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Millikan (1909)

measured the charge of the electron, only american mentioned

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Rutherford (1911)

gold foil experiment - founded the details of the atom's structure - nucleus

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Avogadro (1811)

discovered Avogadro's number: 6.022x10^23

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Discovery of the Three Laws (1790)

  1. Conservation of Mass

  2. Definite Proportion

  3. Multiple Proportions

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Atomic Theory

  1. all matter is made of atoms

  2. atoms combine in whole number ratios

  3. atoms of the same element share size, mass, etc; vice-versa for different elements

  4. atoms are indivisible and indestructible (false)

  5. compounds are formed by a combination of different kinds of atoms (false)

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Law of Conservation of Mass

-mass stays the same before and after chemical reaction -mass is neither created nor destroyed -there must be equal amounts of reactants and products

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average atomic mass

the weighted average of the atomic masses of the natural isotopes of an element

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mole

a counting number; it is the amount of substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12g of Carbon-12

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molar mass

mass of one mole of a pure substance (g/mol)

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conversion chart

molar mass = 1 mole = 6.022x10^23

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how to find avg atomic mass

mass (amu) x abundance (%) total / 100

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